The London Underground: A Timeline
From Londonhua WIKI
The London Underground
Your Project Page Picture Caption
- 1 The London Underground
- 2 Abstract
- 3 Introduction
- 4 Background
- 5 Deliverable: Comparing the original to present day
- 6 Conclusion
- 7 References
- 8 Attribution of Work
- 9 External Links
- 10 Image Gallery
- 11 Category tags
The paragraph should give a three to five sentence abstract about your entire London HUA experience including 1) a summary of the aims of your project, 2) your prior experience with humanities and arts courses and disciplines, and 3) your major takeaways from the experience. This can and should be very similar to the paragraph you use to summarize this milestone on your Profile Page. It should contain your main Objective, so be sure to clearly state a one-sentence statement that summarizes your main objective for this milestone such as "a comparison of the text of Medieval English choral music to that of the Baroque" or it may be a question such as "to what extent did religion influence Christopher Wren's sense of design?"
I suggest you save this section for last. Describe the essence of this project. Cover what the project is and who cares in the first two sentences. Then cover what others have done like it, how your project is different. Discuss the extent to which your strategy for completing this project was new to you, or an extension of previous HUA experiences.
As you continue to think about your project milestones, reread the "Goals" narrative on defining project milestones from the HU2900 syllabus. Remember: the idea is to have equip your milestone with a really solid background and then some sort of "thing that you do". You'll need to add in some narrative to describe why you did the "thing that you did", which you'd probably want to do anyway. You can make it easy for your advisors to give you a high grade by ensuring that your project milestone work reflects careful, considerate, and comprehensive thought and effort in terms of your background review, and insightful, cumulative, and methodical approaches toward the creative components of your project milestone deliverables.
Now you're on your own! Your milestone must include a thorough and detailed background section with detailed subsections; if additional articles are required to be referenced in this background section, create those as well and link to them (the creation of all pages is tracked by the wiki site and attributed to your username). Remember to use rich multimedia whenever possible. Consult the Help page as needed! Remember, if you don't see an article on this site that is an integral part of your project, create it! Your entire page-creating/page-editing history factors into your overall grade.
The Reasoning Behind the Railway
It has been said that London would not be the city it is today without the London Underground. The production of this vital part of the city began over 150 years ago. A majority of the railway having been built between 1863 and 1913 in the central part of the city. It wasn't until later, when the city was becoming too cramped, that the lines expanded to the suburbs. It has been widely considered if the development of these new Tube lines fostered the suburbs, or if the expansion of the city's population to the suburbs had fostered the expansion of the Tube.
Different lines have had different reasoning for being built. It was rumored the Bakerloo line was built because a group of businessmen had no easy way to get to work in a city full of taxis, buses, and cars. Of course, this group must have been larger than just a group of work buddies considering 36,000 people rode the Bakerloo line the day it opened. The Circle line was clearly built for transport within the city center. A person could get fairly near to any place in London by taking the Circle line. The Metropolitan Railway, now line, was greatly extended to suburban areas in the northwest of London in the 20th century. Since the Underground was still owned by multiple private companies, this was a huge marketing opportunity. Metropolitan Railway promoted dream homes in the countryside and their high-speed rail services that could get people there. This again raises the question of co-development; does the growth of the suburbs promote Tube expansion, or does Tube expansion promote the growth of the suburbs?
Most construction of the Underground after the 1920s were extensions. The first new line across London for 60 years was the Victoria line in 1968, followed by the Jubilee line in 1979. This is in part due to the sizable commitment such a line entails. The Tube lines that cross the city have all take over 20 years to complete start to finish, making extensions seem like a much more feasible option. The Victoria line was built to relieve congestion, specifically on the Piccadilly and Northern lines, by connecting the main line stations Euston, Kings Cross St. Pancras, and Victoria. The Jubilee line was built much for the same purpose. It has connected new tunnels across London between Baker Street and Charing Cross. This line's opening and extension has greatly facilitated London's Docklands as a center for business, leisure, and residential activity
Building the London Underground: A Timeline
- 1855- A test tunnel is built in Kibblesworth to test the feasibility of the idea of trains underground. It is later filled.
- 1863 - The Metropolitan Railway runs between Paddington and Farringdon Street- present day Metropolitan line.
- 1864 - Services to Addison Road (now Kensington Olympia), via the curve at Latimer Road, begin on the Metropolitan Railway, now the Hammersmith & City line. The railway extends to Hammersmith.
- 1868 - The District Railway opens between South Kensington and Westminster.
- 1868 -The Metropolitan Railway extends to South Kensington (Circle Line).
- 1868 - The Metropolitan line extends from Baker Street to Swiss Cottage.
- 1869 - New tracks open on the District line between Gloucester Road and West Brompton.
- 1869 - A new London and South Western line opens between north of Addison Road and Richmond. The new Hammersmith station means the old terminus is re-sited.
- 1874 - The District line extends to Hammersmith, Richmond in 1877 and Ealing Broadway in 1879.
- 1884 - The inner circle line is completed by linking the Metropolitan and District lines at both ends (becomes part of the Circle Line).
- 1884 - The District line extends to Mark Lane (now Tower Hill) and Hounslow.
- 1884 - The Metropolitan Railway extends east to Whitechapel, now part of the Hammersmith & City line.
- 1885 - The two-year-old Ealing to Windsor service ends on the District line.
- 1890- City & South London Railway between Stockwell and King William opens, this will become part of the Northern line. The Underground first became known as “the Tube”.
- 1892 - The Metropolitan line is extended to Aylesbury.
- 1898 - The Waterloo & City line became London’s second, deep-level Tube railway.
- 1904 - The Uxbridge branch of the metropolitan line is opened.
- 1905- The Circle and District lines and part of the Metropolitan line become electrified.
- 1906 - Now part of the Bakerloo line, The Baker Street & Waterloo Railway opens between Baker Street and Elephant & Castle.
- 1906 - What will become the Hammersmith & City line is electrified.
- 1906 - The Piccadilly line opens between Finsbury Park an Hammersmith.
- 1907- The Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead- known as the Hampstead Tube- opens between the Strand to Golders Green, with a branch between Cmaden Town and Highgate. This will become part of the Northern line.
- 1907 - A branch on the Piccadilly line opens from Holborn to Aldwych.
- 1908 - The Central line extends west to Wood Lane to support the While City Exhibition.
- 1910 - The District line extends to Uxbridge.
- 1912 - The Central Line extends east from Bank to Liverpool Street.
- 1915 - The Bakerloo line is extended from Baker Street to Queen’s Park. Women are employed by UERL and the Metropolitan Railway as “wartime substitutes” for previously male positions during the First World War.
- 1920 - The Central line extends west to Ealing Broadway.
- 1921- Hampstead Railway- the Northern line- extends to Edgware.
- 1922- City & South London Railway links to the Hampstead line at Camden town, extends south to Morden and Kennington (1926), and officially becomes known as the Northern line (1933).
- 1925 - The Watford branch of the Metropolitan line opens.
- 1932 - Another branch of the Metropolitan line to Stanmore opens.
- 1932-3 - The Piccadilly line extends south to South Harrow, Arnos Grove, Hounslow West, Uxbridge, and Cockfosters.
- 1936 - The “Circle Line” name appears on a poster for the first time.
- 1936 - Trains are extended over the former District Railway line to Barking (Hammersmith & City).
- 1939 - The Bakerloo Line takes over the Stanmore branch of the Metropolitan line.
- 1939-41- The new Northern line extends between Archway and East Finchley, High barnet and Mill Hill East.
- 1940 - Following bomb damage, the service to Addison Road is suspended and doesn’t restart after the war (Hammersmith & City).
- 1945 - After the war, new tracks next to the main line railway start to be used. They run from North Acton to West Ruislip and include new tunnels from Liverpool Street to Leyton.
- 1945 - The Waterloo & City line became part of British Railways.
- 1949 - The Circle Line gets its own line on the Tube map.
- 1961 - The Metropolitan line is electrified to Amersham and Chesham. Services beyond Amersham are taken over by British Rail (now Chiltern Railways).
- 1968-9 - The Victoria Line opens between Walthamstow Central and Victoria. This is the first computer-controlled underground railway, utilizing automatic trains and ticket gates.
- 1971 - The Victoria line was completed with the opening of Brixton station.
- 1975- The tunneled link between Finsbury Park and Moorgate on the Northern line is transferred to British Rail (now First Capital Connect).
- 1977 - Heathrow Terminals 1, 2, and 3 open on the Piccadilly line.
- 1979 - The first stage of the Jubilee line opens between Charing Cross and Baker Street.
- 1979 - The Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line closes.
- 1986 - The Heathrow service on the Piccadilly line becomes a loop with the opening of Terminal 4.
- 1988 - The Hammersmith & City line is officially named Hammersmith & City.
- 1989 - Services between Queen’s Park and Harrow & Wealdstone restart on the Bakerloo line.
- 1993- Angel station work is completed for the Northern Line.
- 1994 - The Epping to Ongar shuttle service closes due to low passenger numbers (Central Line).
- 1994 - The Aldwych branch of the Piccadilly line closes down because of too few passengers and high costs.
- 1994 - The Waterloo & City line transferred to London Underground.
- 1999 - The Jubilee line is extended from Green Park to Stratford.
- 2009 - The Circle line is broken and replaced by an end-to-end service.
- 2008 - Heathrow Terminal 5 opens on the Piccadilly line.
- 2012 - The original 1968 Victoria line received a complete upgrade.
- 2012 - A new fleet of electric trains are introduced on the Metropolitan line. They are the first on the Underground to feature air conditioning and full-length, walk through interiors.
Deliverable: Comparing the original to present day
Adapting and Advancing
How has this revolutionary mode of transportation adapted to account for the increased population of London?
A Projected Timeline
In this section, provide a summary or recap of your work, as well as potential areas of further inquiry (for yourself, future students, or other researchers).
Add a references section; consult the Help page for details about inserting citations in this page.
- Dennis, R. (2013). Making the Underground Underground. The London Journal, 38(3). Retrieved from JSTOR database. 
- Levinson, D. (2008). Density and dispersion: the co-development of land use and rail in London. Journal of Economic Geography, 8(1). 
- London Underground. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2017, from Transport for London website 
- Mullins, S. (2013). The London Underground and the London Transport Museum. The London Journal, 38(3). 
Attribution of Work
For milestones completed collaboratively, add a section here detailing the division of labor and work completed as part of this milestone. All collaborators may link to this single milestone article instead of creating duplicate pages. This section is not necessary for milestones completed by a single individual.
If appropriate, add an external links section
If appropriate, add an image gallery
Don't forget to add category tags!!! Your Milestone Pages MUST contain one "Project" Category tags like this:
[[Category:Philosophy & Religion Projects]]
[[Category:Drama & Theater Projects]]
[[Category:Writing & Rhetoric Projects]]
...and NO OTHER TAGS except for the year the project was completed by you, like this:
See the Category Help page for assistance. Don't include irrelevant category tags in your Milestone page (like the Template category!)
Delete this entire "Category section" when editing this page--Categories don't need a heading.