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Advertising Revelations

From Londonhua WIKI

Advertising Revelations

by Andrew Kacherski

Advertising Revelations
Milestone Image
Piccadilly Circus
Photo Credit Emily McEachern


Abstract

War advertising over the ages has changed. In this milestone, I will compare the poster advertisements produced during World War II to the ones produced today to combat the War on Terror. Advertising will also change in the future. I plan to evaluate trends today to gauge where it is going in the future. World War II posters told viewers many different messages. Today's posters have a similar message to each other: fight terrorism. I will briefly evaluate the history behind the World War II posters and compare them to today's posters on the War on Terror.



Introduction


This project aims to compare World War II posters to today's posters about the War on Terror. These posters have a historical side and an artistic side, making them popular with people who support art and history. World War II advertising posters had to cover a lot of material. The Ministry of Information had to make posters to help Britain win, and this meant gaining support from within the country. Each poster had an interesting history behind it and was the reason they were produced. Today, we are using posters to help combat the War on Terror. There are shocking similarities between the two sets of posters and also some strong differences. The future of advertising is uncertain and always changing. People have researched the history behind both sets of posters, but I have yet to come across a direct comparison.

Background

World War II


During World War II, war posters commissioned by the government could be seen across cities. Not just in the United Kingdom, but in all countries involved in the wars. The word propaganda has a certain negative connotation when used today but this was not the case then. This was a way for the government to generate support for the war effort. A very common form of propaganda was the poster. According to Vallée, they were often called "weapons on the wall."[1]. These advertisements reminded citizens that Britain could win the war, and it needed their help to do so. [2]. These posters also depicted women working in factories or other male dominated jobs to show that they could replace men and help with the war efforts. This encouraged the government to increase advertising by commissioning more posters to be made.

In 1939, the Ministry of Information was formed to commission posters to sway public opinion. Their work included posters to convince people to grow their own food to cut down on import costs. Others encouraged people to reconsider their weekend trips and encourage the women to take jobs in the factories. [3] To make the posters more effective, the Ministry of Information hired artists to design them. They had drawn up a list of fifty eligible artists who could be commissioned. To provide these artists financial compensation for their work, the Ministry of Information had three options. These were full-time salaried employees who had six-month contracts, others were paid off direct commission, and others were encouraged to submit their work for purchase consideration. The Ministry of Information also had criteria the posters must fit. The most important one was that the poster must be painted through an eyewitness' perspective[4]. The posters and artwork are painted as if you are witnessing the events being portrayed first-hand as if you are standing in that situation.

Victory

British victory posters were produced to boost morale. This was important because morale had a direct bearing on industrial production[5]. They were also intended to be seen by the Germans to undermine their morale. Often the posters put a positive spin on things that were not positive. They sometimes included aspects of the other kinds of propaganda posters. In 1941, the British Ministry of Agriculture started a campaign 'Dig for Victory.' This campaign encouraged people to grow their own food in times of harsh rationing [6]. The posters also indicate that the women at home could also help with securing victory by replacing men's jobs.

Historians' Interpretations

As part of the “Keep ‘em pulling for victory” campaign, the dazed head of Hitler was seen trapped in the heel of a shoe and on the verge of exploding, as “production” has already lit the fuse; “Give this heel the hot foot”, reads the caption. Hitler was presented as an easy, vulnerable target and production (active participation in the war effort), will inevitably result in victory over him [7].



Evacuation

The evacuation posters during WWII were very straightforward. They told the viewer about evacuating London if the threat of aerial bombings became imminent. This way when it came time to evacuate, such as Operation Pied Piper, the idea of evacuation wasn’t new to them and they understood what they had to do. During World War II, it was estimated that over 1.5 million people evacuated their homes[8].

After the threats of aerial attacks became non-existent, people began to return to their homes. By 1939, almost half of the evacuees had returned home. This was not advised by the government because they still felt that bomb threats were imminent. This led them to start posting material advising mothers not to bring their children home. These kinds of posters were intended to appeal to a mothers’ maternal sense. The poster shown below depicts Hitler urging a mother to bring her children back to the city. It is implied by his body positioning, body language, and conversation with the mother that he wants the mother to bring the children back to the city. It is also implied that if they go back to the city, he will call for aerial attacks and cause more casualties. [9].


Historians' Interpretation

The first poster in the gallery pictures a British mother and her children sitting under a tree in a safe area with an enticing, ghost-like Hitler standing behind her and whispering, “Take them back, take them back, take them back” while pointing at a city in the background. According to Vallée, listening to the Hitler, whose eyes and words have been deliberately drawn in red to suggest danger and evil, is clearly synonymous with putting lives in danger, and Hitler is pictured as a threatening figure [10].



Careless Talk

'Careless Talk Costs Lives' became some of the most notable posters from this era. The campaign against careless talk was very important. It was intended to keep people from divulging information to enemy sympathizers or enemy spies[11]. Casual talk could allow the enemy to target specific targets and cause mass causalities. The influx of anti-Nazi German refugees to Britain caused people to become uneasy. They believed the refugees were actually spies, working for the Germans. Since they were not trusted, these refugees were rounded up, arrested, and sent to be imprisoned on the Isle of Man. Not wanting to leave anything to chance, Winston Churchill ordered an anti-gossip campaign in 1941: careless talk [12].

Historians' Interpretation

This analysis is of the red poster shown below. Vallée believes the presence of Hitler is made even more ominous by the use of dimension in the picture: with its big ear, is truly menacing. This incarnation of threat has the obvious objective of frightening the viewer or at least of encouraging him/her to think twice before talking.The general message to the population was that Hitler was always liable to be listening to them [13]. In the British poster entitled “Beware”, the darkening expression on Hitler’s half face shows the seriousness of the danger represented by the Nazi leader. It is to be read in the dark look, with the sinister, drooping eye instantly linked to his outsized lingering ear. Again, the simple, but nonetheless effective, correspondence between the caption, “Beware”, and the expression on Hitler’s caricatured face clearly turns the latter into the epitome of danger [14].



Blackout

Blackouts were crucial to keeping civilians safe. During the war, Britain shut off the power to the entire city of London. The reasoning behind this was that the Axis bombers would have a hard time conducting aerial attacks at night if there were no lights on in the city. The darkness made it harder for the bombers to see their targets, making it more likely they will miss. This saved historical landmarks and civilian lives. This required full cooperation from civilians. The government provided blackout material so that people could cover their windows so that absolutely no light could get out. People often needed two or three sheets of material in order to achieve this. Some people became assigned the position if A.R.P. (Air Raid Precaution) warden. They wore a helmet with a W on the front so they could be easily recognized. They were in charge of making sure their neighbors were completely blacked out. The warden would go around and knock on doors and tell people if they had light showing. They could also report someone who did not comply with the blackout. The reporting would often lead to a hefty fine or a court appearance. [15]

Blackout posters helped to remind people of the importance of blackouts. They would tell the viewer the times the blackout was imposed, or how to remain stay safe during it. The posters also warned people of the dangers of the blackout such as crime or potential hazards associated with moving at night. There were also publications about how one's diet could help them stay safe during this time. There were posters produced telling viewers to eat carrots. Carrots are rich in Vitamin A which was believed to help with eyesight. Below is a gallery of posters produced by the ministry of information regarding the blackout.



Support

Support posters are probably the most familiar form of propaganda you've seen. They called for all men and women to help Britain win the war. With a large portion of men leaving their jobs to defend Britain in the war, ad campaigns and posters called for women to work in factories to make weapons or planes while the men were at war. Due to the harsh rationing and the call for people to grow their own food other posters called for women to work on farms. These campaigns conveyed the message that everyone had an important role to play. This allowed the public to feel involved in the war. There were also calls to support the troops in battle.



Preventing Waste

Waste was a major concern during WWII. The factories were focused on producing war materials. By wasting consumer goods, factories would have to take their attention away from producing war materials and direct it towards producing consumer goods. This can be problematic for the war. Posters called for recycling, rationing, and growing your own food. During the war, Britain had to be self-sufficient due to the attacks on shipping ports. Clothing was a major source of waste. Posters urged people to ‘Make Do and Mend.’ They advocated for people not to buy new clothes, but instead be content with the clothing they had and if something was tattered, to mend it themselves. There were also posters advocating for rag donations. They encouraged people to donate any material scraps to rag collectors so that the material could be used for blankets and uniforms for the soldiers[16].

Food waste was another major concern. The food supply was limited, so to help combat this problem the government commissioned a series of posters. One kind encouraged people to grow their own food. This allowed people to grow what they like and not put a strain on farmers or the food packaging industry. This saved tin cans and other materials needed to pack food so that they could be used for war materials such as helmets and bullets.[17]. There were also posters created about portion size. The food supply was limited since some food companies converted their factories to create war materials. These posters had slogans such as ‘A clear plate means a clear conscience.’ This encouraged people not to take more food than they could eat. This helped to prevent waste and aimed to allow everyone an equal opportunity to food. There was also a campaign about milk. Calcium intake among vulnerable sections of British Society was a priority for the Ministry of Food. The increased calcium was believed to help keep pregnant women and children healthy. During this time, milk rations were increased for these two groups. The government initiated a provision of free milk to school children from 1946 to 1971. The poster had slogans such as ‘Milk: The Backbone Of Young Britain.’ The poster depicted a child with a glass bottle of milk as a spine drinking a glass of milk[18].

Aside from food people were encouraged to recycle. Children were encouraged to collect metal, paper, and rags for recycling. The poster below containing the quote "Join the Cogs" depicts the soap cartons collected by children being used as artillery shells in war. Bones were also highly sought after. The recycling of bones allowed them to be used as glue or fertilizer [19].



Historians' Interpretation

In the famous poster “Better pot-luck with Churchill today than humble pie under Hitler tomorrow,” Hitler is represented as an unappetising humble pie and caricatured through the Nazi salute. Vallée believes the effect of the poster is both to highlight the danger the Nazi leader represented and to belittle him through a contrast with the attractive British Prime Minister. Indeed, roundness is what characterizes the brown pot, with the chubby, smiling face of Churchill whose features are clearly synonymous with kindness, openness, and mirth. Behind the images of the two leaders, one can easily discern the type of society that each symbolizes [20]. The saluting Hitler-pie is small and aggressive, as is suggested by the sharp and pointed lines of the face, and the exaggerated arm movement. The features of the pie face, with its small, black, piercing eyes, the lines underneath them and round the mouth, which is both distorted by his “Heil” and smeared by his black moustache, are so aptly drawn that they seem to encompass the nastiness of the character and of the regime that he wants to impose. Valée feels the choice the viewer should make is simple: follow and support Churchill and reject Hitler. This poster shows the belittling of Hitler. The belittling process is systematic, but, while some posters evidently encourage aggressiveness, if not hatred, and are definitely unfunny, this one relies on ridicule and lampooning in a much more humorous or light-hearted vein, by means of aesthetic exaggeration and simplification [21].



Good v. Evil

These posters served as a way for the British government to justify their involvement in the war. The posters aimed to influence the viewers’ emotions. They were aimed to boost morale and share specified ideologies. The posters often portrayed Hitler as an evil man and the enemy. It was important that people could clearly identify the enemy. This often caused hatred toward the enemy and made the person more likely to contribute to war efforts. This hatred also eliminated the possibility of people questioning the ethics of the war and reduced the probability of becoming traitors[22].



Historians' Interpretation

One of the best ways to galvanize public opinion was to use deeply negative representations of the enemy. This often resulted in the use of caricature. The emotional impact created by the artists in these posters was enough to sustain the will to fight in war [23]. The danger represented by the Nazi leader is often brought close to home by propaganda artists. Vallée claims that when propaganda combines an accusatory tone, warning, and fear-breeding visions, it is designed to be conducive to action. Hitler was also portrayed as different animals. Vallée says "The dehumanization of the Nazi leader is complete: only the familiar lock of hair and the stamped swastikas remain. What is more, as a serpent, Hitler is condemned as slithering, treacherous and potentially deadly." The "You and I" on the pants leg represents the good. It shows that good triumphs evil and that we can stop the evil Hitler [24].






Section 2: Deliverable


Current2.jpg



Comparisons


Current day war advertising isn't as it was during World War II. This is because there isn't a direct enemy to fight against. Today we are fighting with the concept of terrorism instead of a dictator, like Hitler. Today's war is so much more complicated. Instead of fighting a person or country, we're trying to fight a radical idea and today's advertising reflects this. Today in tube stations, bus stations, and airports, you are likely to find some sort of poster about reporting something unusual. The poster usually depicts a bag that was left on the ground by someone and everyone walking around it. This poster is meant to make the passenger more aware of their surroundings in order to keep them safe. By placing these posters, the idea of suspicious solitary bags will be in the backs of peoples' minds. This will make them more likely to report something more unusual. World War II was a major war that changed the course of history. Its posters were vital to making sure that a tyrannical dictatorship didn't take over Europe. Today's war on terror is meant to protect citizens from attacks. There is no threat of losing control of the country. Today's posters do not fill the same niche as the posters from World War II. It is reasonable to assume the posters from World War II saved many more lives.



Similarities


Through my analysis of these posters, I have noticed they have similar color and layout patterns. According to Mahaney, propaganda posters were the most successful medium to depict the attempts to educate and persuade the civilians[25]The text on these posters was often bolded and worded as a command to show the importance of its message. Shown below is the poster I mentioned, 'Report Anything Unusual Won't Hurt You.' The background of the poster is yellow, the text is short, bolded and phrased as a command, making it very easy to get the attention of the reader. Also shown below is a poster I saw inside of Stansted airport in London. This was two days after the terror attacks on London Bridge and Borough Market. The sign reads "See it, Say it, Sorted." Again this poster uses short commands and contrasting colors to draw attention to the eye. This poster has a white background and a red text box making it very bold on the poster. It depicts a man reporting an incident to a police officer and it appears the police officer is handling the situation. This is meant to show how easy it is to defuse a potentially dangerous situation. The World War II posters are very similar. They have bright colors and command sentences. Instead of a bright background, they used colored text on a white background for a lot of posters. Most of the posters had one sentence in a much larger text relating to the picture behind it. This can be seen on the 'Tighten your Grip' poster. The sentence is bold, bright, and relating to the picture, similar to modern day posters.

The language both sets of posters use is very similar in that their word choice helps to solidify their message. The style of posters mentioned above is called fear propaganda. These posters warn that something horrible will happen if they do not follow a specific course of action[26]. They warn if you do not warn an authority about something suspicious, there could be an attack. The other common type of propaganda used is bandwagon propaganda. This style tells the viewer that everyone is doing it and so should you. People will be more likely to join or agree when they believe “everyone” is doing it[27].



The similar histories behind the posters are one of the reasons that the posters are so similar. Currently, the war on terror is unpredictable. We have no way of knowing when or where an attack can happen. The only real way to combat this is to prepare people for the worst and urge them to remain vigilant. This was the same approach used during the air raids/blackouts during World War 2. The civilians had no way of knowing it was coming or where they were going to attack. They could only fight it by making sure their windows were completely blacked out. Since this approach worked well, the government is trying the same approach now to fight terror. The only way to prevent an attack is by remaining proactive. They are also similar in that both wars are a war of ideas. Along with posters, short propaganda movies were shown in cinemas during World War 2 to encourage men to join the army. Groups today are also using films to recruit new members. Al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups create propaganda movies to encourage members to join[28].



Differences

The most obvious difference between the two sets of posters is content. During World War II, it was vital that the public complies with the posters' messages. Doing so could hurt the country. There were a lot more messages then than there is today. Currently, there is no declared war so precautions like rationings and evacuations are not necessary. The war on terror is hard because there is no way to prevent it, unlike using blackouts to avoid air raids. There is also a difference in language. In the World War II posters, the language suggests that by you doing your part, you can help to win the war. This is clear in the rationing, growing your own food, recycling, and evacuation posters. Today's posters use language that implies that it is a team effort in order to win the war on terror[29]. It uses language such as we and together. Today's society uses mostly bandwagon propaganda and places teamwork and cooperation as the main focus. By wording the posters this way, it allows the viewer to feel like they are part of something bigger than themselves. If you look at the yellow poster that reads "Reporting anything unusual won't hurt you," you see a mass of people walking by the backpack. It is meant to show that not reporting the bag can hurt everyone there. There is this idea that if you do not do your part you are letting your team down. As I mentioned above another difference between the poster is the severity. Not listening to a poster during World War II could have caused unforeseen tragic events, possibly the losing of the war. Today if do not report a suspicious event, you are likely to be fine.

Interpretations

Based on the number of posters produced during both time periods, the government placed a great amount of emphasis on them. They really wanted to get the message across to the citizens to help their cause succeed. The posters from World War 2 are hand drawn and resemble cartoons. The cartoon-like pictures allowed people to get the message across without scaring them. Cartoons were familiar to people, they were showed in the movie theaters and served as a form of entertainment. The posters are acting in the same way. It allows the message to come across in a cartoon world and not necessarily the one they are living in. This makes the threat seem less dangerous and people still got the message it was trying to portray. The reason for them being drawn in this manner is because of the artists. The artists who were commissioned by the Ministry of Information often times did other artistic work. Edward Ardizzone, for example, was a children's book illustrator and an artist who painted the human side of World War 2. His gently humorous drawing style allowed him to humanize the events of the war and become on of the most enduringly popular artists commissioned[30].

Today the opposite is true. Due to the exposure people have to violence, whether it be in movies, video games, TV shows, etc., people are becoming numb to it. A study conducted by Brad J. Bushman and Craig A. Anderson showed that those who were subjected to violent video games or violent movies had a longer response time to a violent situation than those who were not exposed to the violent media[31]. The way advertisers are trying to captivate the viewer's attention now is to use real-life and bold examples. The use of computers helps them to achieve this. The posters now make the viewer feel as if the situation described can happen near them at any time. This keeps them on their toes and keeps them vigilant.

If I had to choose which era of posters made me more aware and wanting to participate, I don't believe I would be able to fairly choose.I have never faced things that occurred during World War 2: blackouts, rationing, careless talk, recycling, and evacuations. The problems in each set of posters depicted societal problems at that time. We do not face rationings and evacuations today just as in the 1940's, they did not have to worry about reporting suspicious baggage or having an uneasy feeling in a large crowd. For the time period, they were intended for, these posters accurately represented an attempted solution to a societal problem.

The posters were often bright and colorful to draw attention and catch the viewers eye. The audience for these posters was not limited to adults. They were meant to be shown to the entire population, children included. Bright colors are also synonymous advertising related to children so this also caught the child’s eye. If the posters were not bright and colorful, then they were every simple; they had just a few words. This allowed the posters to be read quickly as the viewer walked by quickly on the platform to catch their train.

Evacuation posters were made to get the idea in the back of peoples’ minds. These posters mostly depicted the evacuation of women and children. The idea was that the men could handle themselves or stay back and fight for the city. The women and children had to be brought out of the city to be protected.

Blackout posters were often used dark colors to reinforce the idea of a blackout. Good vs. Evil posters portrayed the Germans as evil, heartless people that needed to be stopped.

One question that came to mind, while I was researching these posters, was what determined the quantity of each poster produced at any given time? Did events in the war determine what posters were produced at that time? After further research, Cecile Vallee has the same speculations. She believes that the dates and contexts of the posters explain the changes in approach but since the posters are undated and the Ministry of Information did not release the artist of each poster, it is hard to determine if there is a correlation[32].

Future of Advertising


Advertising is changing rapidly. It has to adapt to changing societies and current world problems. This means introducing new media to get the message across. Posters are a great way for people to get information as they pass by. But advances in technology can allow for screens to rotate through countless posters in the same amount of space where one poster once hung. These digital advertisements would easier to change and could be easily made from anywhere in the world. This means that the government could commission more artists or have more competition for poster creation. Competition increases the quality of the deliverable so the government could end up with better posters than before. They can also incorporate multimedia elements such as video and sound. This can increase the probability of attracting the attention of the person passing by. It would be reasonable to assume this will allow the advertisement to be more effective and have a further reach. These digital posters also have the potential to be shared on social media. Social media is a worldwide platform for sending information. In a matter of minutes, information has the potential to be seen by millions of people. Currently, governments use social media to get information to people but it doesn't seem to be effective. For example, the President of the United States has 18.4 million followers on Twitter (source: twitter). The current population of the United States is 321.4 million people. For this example, let us just say that all 18.4 million followers live in the United States. In reality, there is probably a good number of followers who don't. In this situation, this means that only 5% of the population follows the President on Twitter. Granted the President's tweets are not a public service announcement and not many people like the President, but the principle is the same. How many people would follow this public service account if it were created? Would it be effective? Would the disdain toward the government carry on to public service announcements and cause people to miss vital information that could cost them their lives? This does not seem like an effective medium to spread information. In my opinion, a more effective medium the government could pursue in the future is push notifications to your phone. This means that you would get an alert if the government wants to tell you something important. This system is currently in place for Amber Alerts and Emergency Alerts. It would not be unlikely that the government begins to use this system more often. If the government were to start doing this, there will be push back. In the United States, there is currently a problem with the idea of government spying on personal devices and the NSA. The idea of them pushing notifications to everyone's phone will not go over well. Also, where do we differentiate what is important enough to be sent to every phone? What will stop companies from doing this to advertise their product? I feel there are too many problems with this option and there would need to be strict guidelines set in place prior to considering this as an option. I do not see this method being used in the near future.

In general, the future of advertising will stray away from the use of paper and incorporate more technology. This is present in everyday life. Ebooks are replacing books, Google is replacing encyclopedias and libraries, and phone games are replacing board games. A study conducted by Mara Rojeski at Dickenson College found that there was a much higher use of ebooks over print reserves at the school's library [33]. While this was only conducted on a college campus, it shows that our generation would rather use ebooks than traditional books. This study reinforces the idea of a paperless world in the future. There is a push around the world to use less paper and be more eco-friendly. The government would follow this trend and also abandon using paper as a medium. The language or layout of these posters will not change. The style of bright colors and command sentences have proven to be effective. This has been used in posters for the past century. I do not see a new style taking precedent anytime soon. The only thing that will change will be the medium the poster is on. Even the inclusion of video elements will not change how the posters are worded or laid out. Anthony Hughes, Todd Wilkens, Barbara M. Wildemuth, and Gary Marchionini conducted an eye tracking survey and concluded that "a co-reference between an image and a text should be carefully conducted to ensure that the maximum amount of encoded information is passed along to the viewer."[34] Simply stated that there is a point that incorporates both pictures and text that passes the most information along to the viewer. By eliminating text from a poster and making it solely a digital video medium, it is possible the entire message is not received by the viewer.

Conclusion


To conclude, the World War 2 era posters have an interesting history behind them. Some of the posters are very similar to the advertisements today for the War on Terror. The style, wording, and layout are all very similar. I believe that the World War 2 posters influenced today's posters. For the future of advertising, I see a push towards paperless advertising coming soon. A recent study found advertising language and layout are likely to change because as they are now, the posters get the most information across to the viewer. If I were to continue this project I would move beyond comparing advertising. I would research and compare the actual wars: World War II and War on Terror. I feel that there are a lot of similarities that we may not be aware of and I feel that it would be interesting to investigate this. I would also be interested in seeing a comparison based on artistic styles.



References

  1. World War Two : Government Posters. (2008). Retrieved May 29, 2017, from https://nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/education/propaganda.pdf
  2. Evera, S. V. (2007). "The War on Terror: Forgotten Lessons From World War II". Middle East Policy, 14(2), 59-68. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4967.2007.00297.x
  3. Vallée, C. (2012). Monsters and Clowns Incorporated: the Representations of Adolf Hitler in British and American WWII Propaganda Posters. Revue LISA/LISA e-journal. Littératures, Histoire des Idées, Images, Sociétés du Monde Anglophone–Literature, History of Ideas, Images and Societies of the English-speaking World, 10(1), 126-150.
  4. Samborski, J. (2014). World War II Propaganda. College History. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.collegehistory.info/modern/friendly/06-propaganda.pdf
  5. McCloskey, B. (2005). Artists of World War II. London UK, Greenwood Publishing Group.
  6. Hughes, Anthony, et al. "Text or pictures? An eyetracking study of how people view digital video surrogates." International Conference on Image and Video Retrieval. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003.
  7. Messinger, G. S. (1992). British Propaganda and the State in the First World War. London, UK, Manchester University Press.
  8. Museum of Brands, Packaging, and Advertising. London UK, www.museumofbrands.com/, June 6, 2017
  9. Winning Over Hearts and Minds Analyzing WWII Propaganda Posters. (n.d.). Retrieved June 14, 2017, from http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-teachers/lesson-plans/pdfs/winning-over-hearts-and-minds.pdf (This lesson plan from the Imperial War Museum is meant for teachers to teach their students about analyzing World War II posters but it has a very well written background that contains a lot of relevant information for my project.)
  10. Clouting, L. (n.d.). The Evacuated Children Of The Second World War. Retrieved June 01, 2017, from http://www.iwm.org.uk/history/the-evacuated-children-of-the-second-world-war (this source provides examples of evacuation posters and gives a brief history behind the posters.)
  11. Harris, K., & Webb, C. (n.d.). Second World War Posters. Retrieved June 1, 2017, from http://www.iwm.org.uk/learning/resources/second-world-war-posters-0 (this source posts a few examples of preventing waste posters, explains why they were made, and a brief history behind the posters.)
  12. Dig for Victory. (n.d.). Retrieved June 06, 2017, from http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item107597.html (the British Library posted examples of World War II posters and explains the history behind the posters.
  13. Aldgate, A., & Richards, J. (2007). Britain can take it: The British cinema in the Second World War. IB Tauris.
  14. Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2009). Comfortably Numb: Desensitizing Effects of Violent Media on Helping Others. Psychological Science, 20(3), 273-277. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02287.x
  15. New Restrictions on the Home Front- Britain is Blacked Out. (n.d.). Retrieved June 05, 2017, from http://www.homesweethomefront.co.uk/web_pages/hshf_blackout_pg.htm
  16. Dawson, E., & Rafferty, P. (2001).'Careless talk costs lives': a case study examining the operation of information in British domestic posters of the Second World War. New Review of Information and Library Research, 7, 129-155.


  1. Vallée, C. (2012). Monsters and Clowns Incorporated: the Representations of Adolf Hitler in British and American WWII Propaganda Posters. Revue LISA/LISA e-journal. Littératures, Histoire des Idées, Images, Sociétés du Monde Anglophone–Literature, History of Ideas, Images and Societies of the English-speaking World, 10(1), 126-150.
  2. World War Two : Government Posters. (2008). Retrieved May 29, 2017, from https://nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/education/propaganda.pdf
  3. World War Two: Government Posters.
  4. McCloskey, B. (2005). Artists of World War II. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  5. Vallée, C. (2012). Monsters and Clowns Incorporated: the Representations of Adolf Hitler in British and American WWII Propaganda Posters. Revue LISA/LISA e-journal. Littératures, Histoire des Idées, Images, Sociétés du Monde Anglophone–Literature, History of Ideas, Images and Societies of the English-speaking World, 10(1), 126-150.
  6. Dig for Victory
  7. Vallée, C. (2012). Monsters and Clowns Incorporated: the Representations of Adolf Hitler in British and American WWII Propaganda Posters. Revue LISA/LISA e-journal. Littératures, Histoire des Idées, Images, Sociétés du Monde Anglophone–Literature, History of Ideas, Images and Societies of the English-speaking World, 10(1), 126-150.
  8. Clouting, L.
  9. Clouting, L.
  10. Vallée, C. (2012). Monsters and Clowns Incorporated: the Representations of Adolf Hitler in British and American WWII Propaganda Posters. Revue LISA/LISA e-journal. Littératures, Histoire des Idées, Images, Sociétés du Monde Anglophone–Literature, History of Ideas, Images and Societies of the English-speaking World, 10(1), 126-150.
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