Grunge in London

From Londonhua WIKI

by Katharine Conroy

Grunge in London
Popular Grunge Bands from the US and London
InspiredImages. (2016). Kurt Cobain photograph. Licensed under Creative Commons Zero on [1]


For this milestone, I am doing a comparison of American and London grunge music, whose time periods, late 1980's, ran almost simultaneous to each other. I delved into what grunge music is and the cultural and societal issues that were often incorporated into the music. These social issues were used as inspiration to the artists and were often incorporated in the sound and lyrics of these songs.
This project is very special to me due to the fact that the music has been a great part of my life since I was a child playing the violin. During high school, I took many music classes and was in both band and chorus. So this project incorporates my propensity to music, more specifically grunge music, and allows me to explain this misunderstood and often confusing genre of music.


This project is meant to be used as an introduction to the little-known genre of grunge, which dominated the music scene during the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. I produced a guide to listening to grunge music along with an accompanying deconstructed “mixtape” with an analysis to distinguish the differences between American and London grunge music. For this “mixtape”, I had many a myriad of choices for what songs to put in it, but my decisions on the songs and artists decided were a mix of popularity, memorial, and geographic location. “Smells Like Teen Spirit” by Nirvana was chosen due to the fact that Nirvana was one of the most iconic symbols of the grunge movement and “Smells Like Teen Spirit” is number 9 on RollingStone’s list of “500 Greatest Songs of All Time” [2]. Soundgarden’s Black Hole Sun was chosen in memory of the late Chis Cornell who recently passed away. This song was creepy and unique, which reflected that grunge movement. I choose both Glycerin by Bush and Creep by Radiohead because they were both grunge bands that came out of the England/ London area. They both oozed of angst and demonstrated how the grunge movement spread to other areas of the world.

This topic has been a part of the discussion since its appearance in the late 1980’s, however much of it has been about the culture that surrounded the movement. A wonderful work that covered this movement with an indiscriminate and impartial eye was Catherine Strong’s novel ‘‘Grunge: Music and Memory’’[3] However in my research, I found that there is very little that covered the lasting effects and spread of grunge music to other countries. So I researched the culture of the grunge movement and its affects of the surrounding cultures. This project is covering material that is new and exciting and requires much research.


Start of Grunge: Seattle, WA
Popular Grunge Start
Pexels. (2015). Seattle photograph. Licensed under Creative Commons Zero on [4]

Grunge music is classified as a genre of rock music that came to fruition from the late 1980’s to the early 1990’s. During this time grunge did not only appear as a genre of music, it also became a fashion trend that donned an unkempt and dirty look. Grunge music was started in Seattle, Washington and gravitated around the independent record label Sub Pop. It spread from its roots, in Seattle, to many other countries and cities such as London. Sub Pop produced groups such as Soundgarden, Mudhoney, Green River, and Nirvana (before they signed with a major label). Grunge alternatively became known as the Seattle Sounds due to its origins in Seattle. Grunge was not exactly a new sound but more of a combination of different genres of rock. Musically and attitudinally grunge was similarly related to heavy metal, punk, and alternative, but it also had other components such as thrasher metal, which came about in the mid-1980’s during the split of heavy metal into a number of different genres. This added to the myriad of different sounds in the music scene. Therefore, grunge became a mosaic of rock with many picking and choosing the sounds and agendas they supported. Due to this, it’s almost impossible to give a complete and definite definition or sound to grunge because it meant different things to different people, but they all housed similar themes and attitudes.

Generally, the grunge sound contained a “dirty” (Strong, 2016, p. 18)[5] and rough sound, which is probably where its name came from. This was especially notable in the beginning when much of the music produced was done on a small budget, with a lack of expertise, and a lack of professionalism. The music itself can be described a “visceral” (Strong, 2016, p. 18)[6] with guitars and low bass vacillating between low and thundering. It reflected the angst and hurt that bands felt due to their betrayal by society. Many wrote in their verse and refrain form, with lyrics addressing problems such as youth suicide, rape, drug dependency and depression, which were deemed taboo by society (Strong, 2016, p. 17). They used the distorted sound as a symbol of how polluted the world is, therefore they avoided the use of virtuoso (Strong, 2016, p. 17) [7] guitar because it was used in mainstream rock and took away from the lyrics. All of the music was sharp and deliberate, which was a great contrast to the music of the late 1980’s. This sharp and deliberate sound was typically created by electric guitar, drums, low bass, and vocals, but may utilize other instruments.

This movement started and ended very quickly but left many awakened to the possibilities that music has. The music began as a way to attract attention to public issues and left many with the idea that they could start a band to address an issue that they had. Grunge music became part of the mainstream and Nirvana’s album ‘‘Nevermind’’ surpassed Michael Jackson’s ‘‘Dangerous’’ at No. 1 on the Billboard (Rutherford, 2016). [8] This impression on the mainstream allowed many bands like Nickelback and Creed to enter the music scene after the grunge era, due to the fact that it “was the catalyst to reconstructing the mainstream music industry to allow a greater inclusion different music genre” (Strong, 2016, p. 20) [9] . Grunge made a lasting impact on both society and the music industry, which will affect generations to come.

Where and when did this grunge music start?

In the United States, grunge started in the late 1980’s in Seattle, Washington and mostly revolved around the record label company Sub Pop. During that time, Sub Pop released grunge bands such as Soundgarden and Green River, who later became known as Pearl Jam. However, Grunge music really began to gain recognition when they released Nirvana’s first album ‘‘Bleach’’. Later on, Nirvana would sign with the major label company David Geffen Company (DGC) [10] as they gained more popularity.

Seattle became the hotspot with many migrating to the area to get a taste of this new sound. During this time, other bands started to sign with record labels interested in making money from this new Seattle sound. These bands signed with the agreement that they had “artistic” (Strong, 2016, p. 22) [11] control over the music they produced and this allowed the music to stay as intended by the bands.

Grunge gained the public’s attention in 1991 during the release of Nirvana’s album “Nevermind”. This was when grunge entered the mainstream. Record companies started searching for these bands outside of the Seattle area with grunge sound and found groups like Stone Temple Pilots and Smashing Pumpkins, who gained popularity in the mainstream. Grunge became so omnipotent that it spread all across America to places such as London with Nirvana or more specifically Kurt Cobian as its spokesperson.

London became no exception to the grunge movement, with Nirvana infiltrating the mainstream. In the height of the grunge music movement in the US, came an alternative rock band from England called Radiohead. They started their music career in 1991. [12] Their music had a sound that was similar to grunge music and because of that EMI, a major record company who produced famous groups such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys signed them to their label[13]. This became an inspiration to many other groups, such a Bush from London, England, who began in 1992 during the height of the movement. However, the movement never gained as much speed as it did in America. Interestingly, Bush’s songs gained more headway in American than in London. Much of the grunge’s popularity ended when Kurt Cobain, the principal singer of the grunge movement, passed away of an apparent suicide. It would have been very interesting to see where the grunge music genre would have gone if it hadn’t ended so abruptly.

Emotions in Grunge
Fear and Anxiety
Johnhain. (2016). Fear and Anxiety photograph. Licensed under Creative Commons Zero on [14]

What did it represent?

Grunge was not only a music genre that evolved from the rock genera in the late 1980’s to 1990’s, it was also a culture and catalyst for social issues of the time. The music was often described very somber, sad, and angry, which is what many of the artists were trying to portray because they wanted to let the audience know the pain and angst they felt. It was very emotional it often contained themes of alienation, rejection, drug dependency, depression, alcoholism, angst, and anger. (Strong, 2016, p.17-19) This sound and attitude resonated very well with the youth of this time period and those affected by those problems. So it was not unreasonable that the movement spread across America with the unmentionable issues it was addressing and its unique sound. As far as spreading to other parts of the world, these issues carried a similar weight to the people of places such as London. Many felt forgotten and rejected by the society because of the emotions they felt.

Grunge music also has a greater occurrence of social issues than any other rock genres in the 1990's (Strong, 2016, p.18). The issues that they were covering were universal, which is why it had a great reception by people. It was broadcasting the issues of the poor and forgotten. Both in the United States and London, many of the youth faced the same problems, so there was really no difference in what it represented because the message was universal. The people wanted acceptance from a society that often hides issues seen as taboo and society that forces those who don’t fit in to conform. Many wore labels free clothing that rejected the ideas of commercialism due to the fact that it would have them conform (Strong, 2016, p.17). There was no authenticity in conformity and big corporations became the enemy of these people because they wanted people to conform to their standards. This was why many artists stayed with smaller corporations, so they had control over their sound with no input from those selling their records (Strong, 2016, p.16). In the attitude of acceptance, grunge artist often supported those who were underrepresented and discriminated against. They supported women’s rights and unlike their 1960’s counterparts they did not use sexist lyrics or lyrics that slandered women. Nirvana was also known to headline a fundraiser that “opposed the proposed institutionalized discrimination against gays and lesbians” (Strong, 2016, p. 28) [15]. They also organized a concert to alert the population of the “plight women of the Balkan conflicts” (Strong, 2016, p. 28) [16].

However, there a dark side to this movement. Many of the problems that these artists faced were an everyday struggle that could not be relieved. These dark issues of depression, drug dependency, alienation, and authenticity many times remained unresolved and some self-medicated to ease their pain. Grunge represented these peoples’ pain, however, not all of them were strong enough to conquer their demons and they fell victim to their problems. Most notably, Kurt Cobain struggled with depression and drug dependency and was found dead of an apparent suicide. He struggled with drugs and staying clean his music can definitely speak for his pain and angst. He was not the only to have his demons, but with his death came the beginning of the end of the grunge era. Still today many still suffer from these issues and more recently Soundgarden’s lead singer Chris Cornell lost his battle with depression. This genera, while it helped those suffering by giving those who suffered someone to relate to, also had its own issues. Grunge left a both positive and negative affect on the world and there is much still to be learned from it today.

How did Grunge Music affect the people and who did it effect?

The grunge movement affected those of the X generation or people born after the Baby Boomers. It gave the youth of the Generation X an identity for those who felt rejected because of their inability to fit in with society. The youth of this generation used this music as a rebellion against society and any higher power such as parents. It was considered the “cool” and “in” thing and a cultural right of passage. Many of youth affected were facing changes in their own lives and used grunge as a release. They were considered rebellious teenagers and many interviewed by Catherine Strong [17] considered teen hood as a time where everything was confusing, so at the age of 13 the music really appealed to them (Strong, 2016, p. 131- 150). In her interviews, Catherine asks those of Generation X their memories of grunge and many see the music as more of nostalgia than anything else. Many people of that generation have said that the era was important to their development into adulthood, but they, like everyone else, had to grow up. Today, grunge is still resonates with the younger generation and its ideas can be seen in the rock music that came after it. It has been said by Kruse [18] in her novel Site and sound: understanding independent music scenes that grunge “led to a restructuring of the mainstream music industry to allow greater inclusion of marginal musics, and the subsequent fragmentation of the popular music audience.” (Strong, 2016, p. 20)[19]. Alternative bands such as Creed and Nickelback come to popularity while utilizing the visual and musical components of grunge. Still today many year after the end of the grunge movement, grunge has its influences on modern culture in 2017.

Section 2: Guide to appreciating Grunge music

The purpose of this guide is to allow people the opportunity to listen to and appreciate grunge music. It is difficult to have people understand grunge music when they are not given a background to it. Therefore, it is important to have a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the songs being listened to ensure comprehension of the songs. So below are four selected songs by four different artists to show the diversity of grunge music and to also demonstrate the many similarities and distinguishing features. For this “mixtape”, I had many a myriad of choices for what songs to put in it, but my decisions on the songs and artists decided were a mix of popularity, memorial, and geographic location. “Smells Like Teen Spirit” by Nirvana was chosen due to the fact that Nirvana was one of the most iconic symbols of the grunge movement and “Smells Like Teen Spirit” is number 9 on RollingStone’s list of “500 Greatest Songs of All Time” [20]. Soundgarden’s Black Hole Sun was chosen in memory of the late Chis Cornell who recently passed away. This song was creepy and unique, which reflected that grunge movement. I choose both Glycerin by Bush and Creep by Radiohead because they were both grunge bands that came out of the England/ London area. They both oozed of angst and demonstrated how the grunge movement spread to other areas of the world.

While listening to this deconstructed “mixtape” it is recommended, that for one’s full enjoyment, to read the analysis before listening to the song. It will give pointers and details to pay attention to that will enhance the listening experience. Also listening to these songs multiple times may help in the appreciation process. Also feel free to look up other songs and bands such as Pearl Jam, Alice In Chains, Mudhoney, Smashing Pumpkins and so many others. There were many other bands from this era that one may also enjoy in addition to the listed songs and artists. Enjoy!

Kat's Deconstructed Mixtape

Smells Like Teen Spirit

Artist: Nirvana
Album: Nevermind
Released: 1991
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Smells Like Teen Spirit Analysis:

Nirvana was probably one of the most well-known grunge bands to date with its lead singer Kurt Cobain. Today, many know the band by the yellow and black smiley face with the crossed out eyes or the album cover of the naked baby swimming toward the dollar bill, but they were very prolific in their short time as a band. Smells like Teen Spirit was one of the hits on Nevermind album, which sparked the whole grunge movement, which is why I chose this song. Nirvana became the foundation of grunge music and many used this group as inspiration for their own. Therefore, it is very important to include this song and group to use as a comparison to the others.

When the song first opens, you can hear the distorted guitar sound strumming chords for about the first two measures until the crashing of the drums and cymbals join in. The distorted guitar and large riffs became a staple and signature of the grunge era and will be heard in almost all grunge music. This song will vacillate between the quiet verses and the roaring refrain. As said before in the background, much of grunge music heavily utilized these drastic dynamics that would alternate between forte and piano and very little in between. Also, note the low and burnt out quality of Kurt Cobain’s voice. His voice is very distinct and very easy to differentiate from other grunge bands.

This song is very hard to understand both lyrically and physically, but it is easy to hear the angst and hurt dripping from the lyrics. Cobain’s low and burnt out voice along with the blasting guitars make the lyrics very hard to hear and a lot of the time the lyrics sounds muffled. However, the lyrics themselves often sound like they are talking in riddles. This can be seen in the first verse:

Load up on guns
Bring your friends
It's fun to lose and to pretend
She's overboard, self-assured
Oh no I know, a dirty word [21]

One can attempt to see from these lyrics Cobain’s feelings of alienation by society and forced conformity or the realities of depression. It was well know that he was diagnosed with both ADD and Bipolar Disorder, aka Manic Depression [22]. So the depression, and loneliness he felt was due to a mental disorder he had no control over. Though, it’s difficult to define an explicit meaning to the lyrics due to the fact that Kurt Cobain did not reveal the true meaning behind these lyrics, but many can make guesses at what it was referring to because of his own depression. So when listening, look for the riffs in the guitar chords, the distorted sound, and the rough lyrics. Also, keep in mind the anger and hurt heard during the loud chorus and the alienation riddled in the lyrics. It is very important to keep this song in your head when listening to the others for comparison to this original.


Artist: Bush
Album: Sixteen Stone
Released: 1994
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Glycerin Analysis:

Bush is a band from London, England that became popular at the end of the grunge era, so they technically count as post-grunge. It was headed by its main singer and guitarist Gavin Rossdale [23]. Ironically they never really became popular in the UK, but they did gain a great deal of popularity in the United States with their song Glycerin topping the Alternative Billboard charts in 1995. [24]. They are still producing music today with their latest album “Black and White Rainbows” and they haven’t lost their grunge/post-grunge style. This song and artist was selected because it not only showed the spread of the grunge movement to places such as London, but it also showed the dramatic change in style as the movement came to its end. Bush clearly had a grunge sound, but they did deviate a bit form the pattern, which was set by Nirvana.

The song begins with distorted guitar chords and dissonant echoing that is then accompanied by another guitar. This song is a bit different than the prior with it containing guitar, vocals, violin, and cello, which is very interesting because the use of violin and cello were almost non-existent in grunge music. The main sound would be guitar and drum set, but in Glycerin there were not any drums. Glycerin also did not have the intense dynamics that could be heard in Smells Like Teen Spirit. There was still the vacillation between forte and piano chorus and refrain, but it was not great. The ending of the song is also very unique with it ending in the cello and violin playing dissonant chords. It’s apparent that this song was less about anger and pain, but it more about depression and a failed relationship. Like Kurt Cobain, Gavin Rossdale had a very course and gravelly voice quality. Much of this song carried the characteristics of typical grunge music but with some variation marking the end of true grunge sound.

Bush’s Glycerin was not as lyrically mystifying or physically hard to hear. Even though Gavin did have a gravelly and low voice, there was more annunciation to the lyrics being sung. So you can actually hear what is being said and also the lyrics aren’t as confusing and coded. It is easy to grasp the idea of this song because of the lyrics

Everything's gone white
And everything's gray
Now you're here now you're away
I don't want this
Remember that
I'll never forget where you're at [25]

shows the effects of an being left cyical to the world. These lines talk a lot about being sad to believe that all good in the world is self motivated and nothing is real (Fuse, 2012, 2:50- 3:14) [26]. You can hear the sadness and self-doubt that the person is feeling. The violin and cello give a somber sound with the legato and held out notes. His regret can be seen in the lyrics

Could have been easier on you
I couldn't change though I wanted to
Should I have been easier by three
Our old friend fear and you and me [27]

. He is thinking about all that he could have done or been to make his significant other stay and love him. So when listening, look for the distorted guitar, violin, cello and sad sound. Keep in mind the theme of regret and self-doubt for in this song and see how it continues the grunge theme even at the end of the movement with some variation.

Black Hole Sun

Seizure warning
Warning the video is very creepy may not be suitable for all viewers!

Artist: Soundgarden
Album: Superunknown
Released: 1994
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Black Hole Sun Analysis:

Soundgarden was one of the originals grunge groups, who started in the late 1980’s and grew steadily in popularity. Then in 1994, Black Hole Sun was released on their Superunknown album and it became an instant success landing them in the mainstream. The music “explored a menacing interior landscape teeming with pain, fear, fury, and defiance” and Rolling stone said that “‘it demonstrates far greater range than many bands manage in an entire career’”[28]. The band addressed many social problems, which was highlighted by their talent. Black Hole Sun was chosen in this “mixtape” because it was a very popular song due to the fact that it came out right after Kurt Cobian’s death. This song stayed very true to the grunge sounds and can be compared with Nirvana. In light of recent events, I also wanted to honor and memorialize him and his work. Sadly, Soundgarden’s lead singer Chris Cornell committed suicide on May 17th, 2017. Many people, such as Chris, used music as their outlet to express the emotions or problems that they were facing, which was why it resonated so well with the younger generation. However, not everyone was able to able to conquer their demons, which was consequently the reason the whole grunge movement fell apart. So this section is an honor to Chris and his amazing work.

Black Hole Sun starts with the guitar strumming a chords and a dissonant echoing or feedback that sounds almost like sirens. The guitar sound is extremely distorted that it’s difficult to tell if the sound is actually from a guitar. The song then goes into a verse refrain repetition, where it oscillates between softer verse and louder chorus. It follows the classic grunge style with guitars, drums, and vocals being the major musical layers. The song is very repetitive and contains an almost euphoric feeling. Chris’s vocals are coarse and strained, but the lyrics are heard very clearly and concisely. In this song, many different themes of grunge music can be hear such as pain, alienation, and decay. The title Black Hole Sun sounds like the there is an all-consuming power taking over, which could represent a whole number of things ranging from depression to alienation. This song is very dark and can be seen as an inner reflection of his feelings.

Lyrically Black Hole Sun was very easy to hear because the lyrics are annunciated but the lyrics themselves are very implicit and difficult to decipher. The lyrics had a very euphoric feel to them and surreal feel. The song has a very somber and sad sound to it with the echoing feedback. Black Hole Sun could mean many things and portrayed a distorted view on the world, which could be seen in the lyrics

In my eyes, indisposed

In disguises no one knows
Hides the face, lies the snake
The sun in my disgrace
Boiling heat, summer stench
'Neath the black the sky looks dead
Call my name through the cream

And I'll hear you scream again [29]

This song can be seen as an inner reflection on oppression, depression, and isolation, which were very taboo topics to talk so freely about. His lyrics are a riddled with a twisted reality in which we all are so happy all the time and we hide the pain and anguish we feel to conform to what society wants to see to feel normal. This is painted very clearly in his very creepy and almost deranged music video, which Tom Barnes from Mic says “illustrates this seemingly hopeless fantasy, revealing the darkness hidden underneath the smiling face of idyllic, white-picket fence American life”[30]. It is like he is trying to escape from this dark and all-consuming power trying to drag everything with it. So as you listen to this song compare the technical aspects of the song to the grunge style for similarities and look for the themes of alienation, depression and decay. These will help you to enjoy the song more and find the place that Chris was coming from.


Explicit language!

Artist: Radiohead
Album: Pablo Honey
Released: 1993
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Creep Analysis:

Radiohead is an English band that formed in 1985 before the start of the grunge music era. The band was formed at the all-boys Abingdon School by Thom York, lead singer, with two others from the school. The group formed little by little adding four others, but spilt up to attend university. Then in 1991, during the height of the grunge era, the group got back together to record a demo tape for EMI. They, hearing the grunge sound of their music, offered them a 6 album deal on the condition that they changed their name. The group Radiohead was then formed. They technically are generalized under alternative rock, but their song Creep contains the stereotypical grunge sound, which is why I chose this song. It also highlighted that the reach of Grunge music into the other parts of the world such as England. Interestingly when their hit Creep was first released, Radiohead was called a “Nirvana rip-offs, another one-hit wonder from the other side of the Atlantic plundering Nevermind for instant and fleeting fame”. [31] Ironically, they are still producing music today and have outlasted many other bands of the grunge era.

Creep was one of Radiohead’s most popular songs and even though the group today is classified as alternative rock this song has the grunge sound that we have learned to know. Music starts with a constant beat on the drums and cymbals with a quite distorted guitar in the background. However unlike most grunge music, there happens to be light piano played. The song then crescendos to forte at the chorus and decrescendos to the refrain and will continue to vacillate from high to low throughout the whole song, which, as said before, is a stylistic feature found is most grunge music. Also the song has a verse and refrain repetition form. Like Kurt Cobain, Thom Yorke has a very low and almost burned out voice quality, which is why many believed this band to be a Nirvana knock-off.

The lyrics of Creep are again really hard to hear because of the lack of enunciation and of the lead singer’s burnout vocal quality, but it is also hard to understand the meaning behind the lyrics due to the fact that it is hard to find the meaning. Creep does have a sad and almost depressing sound to it with its slow and constant beat. The song is mournful of what he is not and this can be seen in the lyrics:

You float like a feather

In a beautiful world
And I wish I was special

You're so f*****' special[32]

It seems like it's portraying society’s conformity of who is special and ordinary and because one does not fit these standards they are labeled. This leads to Yorke’s feelings of alienation. This can be seen when the song moves to the chorus. It sounds like the singer is calling out for people to hear his message of alienation in the chorus:

But I'm a creep, I'm a weirdo.

What the hell am I doing here?

I don't belong here. [33]

It sounds like he feels like an outside from those around him and that he doesn’t belong. This was a common ideal during the grunge era and many felt displaced and rejected by society. However according to lead singer Yorke, the song was about being a man in the 1990's and showing emotions to women (Paterson, 2011, p.47) [34] So when listening to the song try to find the piano that is hidden in the song and look for its similarities to Nirvana, which is why I chose the English band. Keep in mind its slow beat and sad tone.


During this milestone, I explored the musical genre of grunge to bring more attention to this often misunderstood music. So to do this, I explored grunge in its entirety covering where grunge first started to its impact on society. In my research, I found that grunge music gained almost a cult following beginning in Seattle, Washington and that it spread throughout the United States to many other places such as London England. However, in London crowd and other places there was not as much of an omnipresence. Bands that appeared out of the grunge movement from London did not make it as big in London as they did in the United States and interim United States grunge bands were more popular than their British counterparts.

After that research, I then did an analysis of popular grunge songs from both the United States and London area to create a short deconstructed “mixtape” with the purpose of introducing grunge music to a person who has never listened to the music before. I then described what makes these songs grunge and the reason I choose them. For the future I would like to look further into the cultural effects of grunge music and how it continues to change the music scene still today. I would also like to see how teen today are being affected by grunge music due to the fact that I, who was not born in this era, found it very relatable to my life. There needs to be more research done on grunge’s impacts on both the culture and music of today, but this is a starting point for any interested in continuing the research.

External Links

Learn more about the bands:


  1. InspiredImages. (2016, February 11). Kurt Cobain [Photograph]. Retrieved from:
  2. 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. (2011, April 07). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from
  3. STRONG, C. (2016). GRUNGE: music and memory. S.l.: ROUTLEDGE.
  4. Pexels. (2015, August 23). Seattle [Photograph]. Retrieved from:
  5. STRONG, C. (2016). GRUNGE: music and memory. S.l.: ROUTLEDGE.
  6. STRONG, C. (2016). GRUNGE: music and memory. S.l.: ROUTLEDGE.
  7. STRONG, C. (2016). GRUNGE: music and memory. S.l.: ROUTLEDGE.
  8. Rutherford, K. (2016, September 23). Nirvana's 'Nevermind': 9 Chart Facts About the Iconic Album. Retrieved May 17, 2017, from
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  10. Official Nirvana Website: Complete Discography, Videos and more. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2017, from
  11. STRONG, C. (2016). GRUNGE: music and memory. S.l.: ROUTLEDGE.
  12. Radiohead Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2017, from
  13. EMI. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2017, from
  14. Johnhain. (2016, March 22). Fear and Anxiety [Photograph]. Retrieved from:
  15. STRONG, C. (2016). GRUNGE: music and memory. S.l.: ROUTLEDGE.
  16. Novoselic, K. (2004). Of Grunge and Government: Let's Fix This Broken Democracy. NY: RDV Books.
  17. STRONG, C. (2016). GRUNGE: music and memory. S.l.: ROUTLEDGE.
  18. Kruse, H. (2003). Site and sound: understanding independent music scenes. New York: Peter Lang.
  19. Strong, Catherine. Grunge: Music and Memory (Ashgate Popular and Folk Music Series) (p. 20). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition.
  20. 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. (2011, April 07). Retrieved June 20, 2017, from
  21. Smells Like Teen Spirit (Boombox Rehearsals) - Nirvana. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2017, from
  22. Jamison, K. R. (n.d.). Kurt Cobain and manic depression. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from
  23. About. (n.d.). Retrieved May 21, 2017, from
  24. Bush. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2017, from
  25. Bush: Glycerin. (n.d.). Retrieved May 21, 2017, from
  26. [Fuse]. (2012, April 30). Gavin Rossdale Explains "Glycerine" - Inside the Lyric [Video File]. Retrieved from
  27. Bush: Glycerin. (n.d.). Retrieved May 21, 2017, from
  28. "The Band." Soundgarden. Soundgarden, n.d. Web. 21 May 2017.
  29. Black Hole Sun - Soundgarden. (n.d.). Retrieved May 23, 2017, from
  30. Barnes, T. (2017, May 18). The secret meaning behind Chris Cornell's Soundgarden song "Black Hole Sun". Retrieved May 23, 2017, from
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  32. Creep - Radiohead. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2017, from
  33. Creep - Radiohead. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2017, from
  34. Peterson, L. (2011, August). Teen Esprit Revisited. SPIN, 46-49. Retrieved from