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How Shakespeare through the Centuries Still Lives On

From Londonhua WIKI

How Shakespeare through the Centuries Still Lives On

by Mary Hatfalvi

How Shakespeare through the Centuries Still Lives On
Romeo and Juliet on the balcony (1886) by Julius Kronberg
Romeo and Juliet balcony scene (1884) by Frank Dicksee
by Mary Hatfalvi


Abstract


The goal for this project was to compare two performances of Shakespeare’s Romeo & Juliet that were performed in London in two different time periods. In addition to exploring scholarly literature on this subject, I used my knowledge in Theater Workshop class and from past performance creations to help me compare both performances.Through this research into the current and past performances, I founded the message of Shakespeare that still lives on today.

Introduction


The story of Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet has been told around the world for hundreds of years. It is a beautiful story about two lovers who are torn apart because of their families quarrel. Because this play is timeless in its message, there have been many different adaptations and storytelling techniques used for this play. The question that this project wanted to answer was that after all of the different adaptations made in the years, does Shakespeare's original theme and message still live on? I answered this question by diving into the story, its inspiration, and looked at two artistically different interpretations of the play to find the real theme & message that still lives on today.

I researched the performance details, style, costumes, mood, theme and overall message of the two different interpretations of Romeo & Juliet. I found, through my research, two London plays which appeared very different in style & technique, and used those interpretations to compare the overall message from the story of Romeo & Juliet. One interpretation of Romeo and Juliet that I found performed in 1867. The interpenetration was put on as an opera at the Covent Gardens, which is now know as the Royal Opera House. The other interpretation was a 1950's style adaptation performed at the Garrick Theatre in 2016. Despite the drastic difference in dramatic style and performance, I found that the original message that Shakespeare want to give through this play still lives on.

Section 1: Background



Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet Story & Inspiration


To find the original message of the play, Romeo & Juliet, I first looked at original's story plot. This helped to to find a basis for the themes that are given in the story.

Story


The plot of Romeo & Juliet circles around two star crossed lovers who are forbidden to be together by their families quarrel. The two families whose names are the Capulets, which is Juliet's family, and the Montagues, which is Romeo's family, have quarreled for years. Romeo & Juliet met at a masquerade ball, which was put on by the Capulets, and they feel in love at first sight. They eventually decided to secretly marry and planned on running away. Sadly though, Romeo ended up killing Tybalt, who is Juliet's cousin, and gets sent to exile. Juliet is then forced by her family to marry Paris. She decided to fake her death by drinking a potion so that she could escape the arranged marriage and run away with Romeo. Unfortunately, Romeo never received word that Juliet's death was fake. He found her 'dead' and poisons himself. When Juliet awoke and see's her Romeo dead, she ends her own life for real. In the end, both families do reconcile but sadly at the cost of Romeo and Juliet's lives.

Romeo and Juliet by Francesco Hayez, (1823)

Inspiration


The story of Romeo & Juliet is a tragic romance that was beautifully told by Shakespeare. However, what was the inspiration behind writing it? William Shakespeare wrote Romeo & Juliet around the 1590's. Researches to this day still cannot exactly pinpoint what inspired the play. While researching Shakespeare's possible inspirations, I found three main possibilities. One possibility was the time period, another are real lovers Shakespeare knew, and another one was a poem that written in Shakespeare's time.

In the time when England was growing in arts & culture, according to a Shakespearean study done on the historical context of Romeo & Juliet, England was suffering from religious persecution towards the Catholics.[1] When Henry VIII became the head of the English church, Catholics were threatened to either convert to his church or to die. When Mary I succeed her father after her brother Edward VI, she didn't persecute the Catholics because she was Catholic herself, like her mother, but instead persecuted Henry VIII's church followers. This was how she got her nickname "Bloody Mary". When Mary I died, Elizabeth I succeeded her. Elizabeth I started her own church and executed Catholics again just like her father. It is recorded in Shakespeare's history that Shakespeare's father was a Catholic. Now no real proof exists for William Shakespeare's religious views but, it is a thought that he did base Romeo & Juliet on this conflicting time period .[1] Think of the names, Romeo (Rome, where the Catholic church is based) and Juliet (Anglican English church of England).

Another possible inspiration that was researched was a true story about two real lovers that Shakespeare knew. According to the Luminarium Encyclopedia, Henry Wriothesley the 3rd Earl of Southampton was a close friend to Shakespeare and was also a courtier to Queen Elizabeth I. His mother was Mary Browne whose father was the 1st Viscount Montagu (doesn't this sound similar to Montagues).[2] Henry fell in love with a woman named Elizabeth Vernon, who was one of Queen Elizabeth I's ladies-in-waiting. Ladies-in-waiting were no allowed to marry and an alliance between Henry & Elizabeth was not favored by the queen, especially since both family had different religious views (Henry's family was Catholic and Elizabeth Vernon's family was Protestant). Henry, who was the ward of William Cecil, was already arranged a marriage by William, which Henry refused. When Cecil died in 1598, Henry and Elizabeth married. This did not make the queen happy and she threw them both in jail.[2] They were eventually released and their love story did end happily with a long life of love & children.

The poem, "The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet" written by Arthur Brooke in 1562, is considered as the most likely inspirational source for the story of Romeo & Juliet.[3] This poem's plot, based in Verona, is close to the same as Shakespeare's plot for Romeo & Juliet. Some things are different like for example, Juliet is wooed by Romeus for two weeks instead of just one night. The words that the characters speak are different in the poem then the play. The story does convey the important theme of a tragic romance.

Each of these inspirations share a similar theme & message for this story: love, tragedy, conflict, and war. This was the theme & message that has to be conveyed for the story of Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet to live on through the ages. To find out if this message is living through the ages, I went into review of two interpretations that are different and gave a summary of performance, dramatic elements used & the overall message conveyed through the researched plays. The first play I researched was an 1867 opera performed at the Covent Gardens. After a investigation in the 1867 opera, I then researched and investigated another interpretation that was performed at the Garrick Theatre in 2016.

Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet at the Covent Gardens (1867)


According to the annals of the Covent Gardens Theatre from 1732 to 1897, the opera "Romeo and Juliette" by Charles Gounod was performed at the Covent Garden on July 11 1867.[4] Adelina Patti played Juliet and Signor Mario played Romeo. The opera was newly composed by Charles Gounod with words by J.Barbier & M.Carré and received many fantastic reviews at the time. One praising review was published in the Watson's Art Journal in London at the time stating that "it is impossible to speak too highly of the manner at which Roméo e Giulietta is placed upon the stage at Covent Garden Theatre".[5] This opera was a new rendition of the story of Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet in 1867.

Performance Summary


The opera was composed in five acts and performed in french. Before the first act, a chorus sung the prologue. The first act then started at the Capulet's Place at a Masquerade ball. Romeo sneaked into the ball with his friends, then met Juliet and then fell for her at first sight. The second act was the balcony scene when Romeo woes Juliet. The Third Act started in the friar's cell where Romeo & Juliet secretly marry. The act continued with Romeo's page who went to the Capulets house and fought with one of their servants in combat. The combat grows by the addition of Romeo, Tybalt and others. Eventually, Romeo kills Tybalt. The act ended when Romeo is then banished by the Duke. Act four was in Juliet's bedroom where Romeo visits her for the night then left before her father and the friar came to tell her that she will marry Paris. The friar, after Juliet's father leaves, the gave Juliet a potion to take so that she could fake her death. She consumed the potion. The fifth and final act is in the Capulets tomb, where Juliet is buried. Romeo entered and after believing Juliet was dead, consumed poison thus ending his life. Before the poison killed Romeo, Juliet awoke and found her Romeo dying from the poison. They spoke heartfelt words and, while Romeo dies, Juliet stabbed herself with his dagger. Thus ending the opera with them both dead.[6]

Press Illustration of 3rd Act (1867)

Dramatic Elements


The opera opened in the the late 1800's in Paris, France. The words are sung in french and the style & costumes of the opera is the Shakespearean time period. The set probably looked liked late 16th century Verona, Italy. Gounod did the same approach with Romeo & Juliet as he did with another one of his famous operas called Faust. He toned down the supporting characters in the play. Except for the Friar and Mercutio, the supporting characters are portrayed only as supporting characters to the main characters. Juliet's nurse, for example, was according to a review, portrayed as someone who could have almost been non-existent.[5] This, according to a review on the performance, was Gounod's way of emphasizing the main characters of the opera.[5] Romeo & Juliet are either one of them or both of them in every scene of the opera with entire scenes to themselves mutable times.

The music set the theme for the opera in every act. The first act started in a triumphant Forte with went to an Andante when the chorus started singing. This is the ball scene so then the music went back to a happy upbeat sound. The second act is performed soft and Dolce. Two scenes are in the third act. The first part started with the sound of Dolce music for Romeo & Juliet which then grew to a triumphant Forte with trumpets ending the scene. The second scene was more tense and sped up growing louder with the chorus. This scene was the fighting scene. The forth act had a beautiful parting sound when Romeo & Juliet were together for the first time since their marriage, before romeo leaves for banishment. Then the scene changed to Juliet with her father and the Friar. The music for that scene sounded like the feelings of Juliet: desperation and hopelessness. The Friar, with a deep bass voice however, gave hope to Juliet with his idea of faking her death. The fifth act started with sad and slow trumpets when Romeo finds his Juliet 'dead'. The scene was very dramatic and showed the passion that both Romeo & Juliet have for each other. The opera ended with sad triumphant horns emphasizing the end of the classic love story. [6]



Balcony Scene from Gounod's Romeo & Juliet (1867)

Overall Review


An opera is a style of theater performance that can create a more dramatic and heartfelt storytelling experience. By drawing out all of the words in song, the viewer is more captivated & emotional about the story & its characters. Gounod, by making Romeo & Juliet an opera, created a way of telling the story where the audience could become more emotional to the pain & loss of love. He also showed this theme by ending the scene, not when the Montagues and Capulets reunite, but when both Romeo & Juliet died. The message that Gounod wanted to send through this opera is the passion of the love, loss, tragedy and the sadness of war & conflict.










Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet at the Garrick Theatre (2016)


For the 2016 season at the Garrick Theatre in London, an interpretation of Romeo and Juliet was performed with directors Kenneth Branagh and Rob Ashford. Rob Ashford was also the choreographer in this production. This interpretation got mixed reviews. The Guardian newspaper's theatre critic Micheal Billington said that "The whole thing is done with a speed and vigour that ensures we are never bored;...".[7] Another review from The Independent newspaper's Arts and Features writer Holly Williams, said that "The pair power through with appropriately teenage high drama, but the show never plumbs the full depths of tragedy."[8] Despite mixed reviews, this interpretation of Romeo & Juliet was unique in its style and approach to the classic tale.



Romeo & Juliet Plays at The Garrick

Performance Summary


Richard Madden and Lily James played the star roles. The performance follows the same script of the original Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet but with some of the original lines cut and some added humor. For example, one added part for Juliet is that in Act 1 Scene 5 she sings a song at the party where Romeo sees her for the first time. The play though keeps to the same Shakespearean words & sayings. The characters are kept the same as in the original play however, Mercutio is not a young man but a sarcastic and nicely dressed older guy. This creates an different way of looking at the character Mercutio, who is the loyal friend of Romeo. He is a person who speaks from experience and Romeo look to him for advice.

Dramatic Elements


The set and time period the play was Verona, Italy in the 1950's. The men wear dark suits and the women wear petticoats.[7] The main scenic design looks like a roman building with white marble columns and steps. The whole play keeps this main set and uses props & lighting to change the scenes. The background music throughout the play is modern. Different kinds of passion can be shown throughout this interpenetration. The passion of love, war, conflict, fear and pain. There is a theme of darkness and light that is shown through the stage, lighting & characters, especially in the Romeo & Juliet death scene. The white light emphasizing Juliet's white gown is contrasted with Romeo's dark black suit. The supporting characters are given more notice and development. For example, the Nurse, according to actress Meera Syal in an interview, is portrayed as a comic caricature but is shown to be human and have great feelings towards Juliet who she considers as a daughter. [9] Meera Syal portrays the Nurse in Garrick Theatre's Romeo & Juliet 2016 performance. The mood throughout the play changes from serious, to energetic, to passionate.

Overall Review


The message that this performance gives is that the story of Romeo & Juliet is timeless. Throughout the set, music, costumes and speech, the play doesn't stick with just one time period. This play also gives the themes of different types of passion within love, war, conflict, fear and pain. For example, Romeo speaks with two different types of passionate love for Rosaline and for Juilet. He says about Rosaline in Act 1, Scene 1 with a boyish love:

""...O, she is rich in beauty, only poor"
"That, when she dies, with beauty dies her store."" [9]

Then he says about Juliet in Act 1, Scene 5 in a starstruck passionate love:

"...Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight,
For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night." [9]

Section 2: Deliverable


Comparing both interpretations helped with finding the message of Shakespeare that still lives on today. The most obvious comparison to start with are the differences in performance & dramatic elements. The differences in these adaptations expand from how the characters are portrayed to how the sets were designed differently. After finding the differences, then the similarities where the message of Shakespeare lives on can be found.

The Differences


Performance

Balcony Scene from Gounod's Romeo & Juliet (1867)

Both of the performance executions for each interpretation are very different. That alone could be explained by the fact that they were done in different time periods and in different places. However, in the 1867 interpretation the performance was written entirely as an french opera. All of the words are sung and even though most of the original Shakespearean writing is kept, a lot of lines for the performance were newly written just for this interpretation. For example, in the original script of Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet, Juliet speaks these beautiful words on the balcony from Act 2, Scene 2:
"Ah me!

O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?

Deny thy father and refuse thy name;
Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,
And I'll no longer be a Capulet.

'Tis but thy name that is my enemy;
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!
What's in a name? that which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet;
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd,
Retain that dear perfection which he owes
Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,
And for that name which is no part of thee
Take all myself."[10].

However, in the same scene in the opera interpretation, Juliet sings in french (Act 1, Scene 2):
"Ah me! - And still I love him!
Romeo, why art thou Romeo?
Doff then thy name, for't is no part,
My loof thee! What rose we call
By other name would smell as sweetly:
Thou'rt no foe, 'tis thy name!" [6]

For comparison, the 2016 adaptation doesn't have a big change from the original lines in Shakespeare's script. For example, in the same part (Act 2 Scene 2), Juliet's lines in the 2016 adaptation are:
""Ay me!"

"O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy father and refuse thy name.
Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,
And I'll no longer be a Capulet.

'Tis but thy name that is my enemy.
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
What's Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!
What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet;
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called,
Retain that dear perfection which he owes
Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,
And for that name, which is no part of thee,
Take all myself."[9].


As shown, the big change in these lines are only the punctuation. Another point of difference that was found when comparing the opera and the 1950's style adaptations are the roles of the supporting characters. The opera. in 1867. had only 10 supporting characters besides Romeo & Juliet. The chorus and background non speaking cast were not counted. The supporting characters in this adaptaion, which the exception of the Friar Lawrence and Mercutio, are not given great emphasis on their growth in character throughout the story unlike the main characters, Romeo & Juliet. In the 2016 version, there were 18 supporting characters with speaking roles including the main two characters. These characters were also given the opportunity in the play to have human characteristics and to grow in virtue or in hate depending on the character. More emphasis in supporting characters was given in the 2016 interpretation then the 1867 interpretation.

After looking at the different performance techniques for each adaptation, I then looked at the different dramatic techniques used.

Dramatic Elements

Scene from a 1994 performance of Romeo and Juliet

The two interpretations both use very different dramatic elements. To start, the style for each was different. The 1867 interpretation is an opera in 16th century Verona. The music & singing was a vital role in character communication & the story plot. Music was the main component in delivering the mood, theme and style. In the 2016 interpretation, music was used to set the mood but regular speaking was main form of communication. Elaborating & empathizing the spoken words created the mood, theme and style of the performance.

The costuming styles are not the same for each of these adaptations. The men and women in the 2016 interpretation were in 1950's style wear. Whereas, in the 1867 opera all of the characters were in Shakespearean style clothing. Romeo & Juliet, in the 2016 adaptaion, wore contrasting cloths of black and white. The scenery place for each were both in Italy however, the 2016 set design looked more like a roman marble palace which helped in setting the contrast of darkness & light that the creator and directors wanted to portray. The 1867 opera set design was Verona, Italy in the 16th century with a fancy dance parlor, balcony and tomb. The mood lighting was also different in both interpretations. For the 2016 play, lighting gave the contrast of darkness vs light as shown in Romeo & Juliet's clothing. Whereas, in the 1867 opera, lighting & costumes are chosen just to tell the story not to give contrast or symbolism.

The Similarities


Overall, what has been said have been the differences in the adaptations. What was found was that many different dramatic elements & styles were used to tell the same story. What is interesting though is that despite the obvious differences, both interpretations do give the same message through their performances of fear, love, anger, loss, and death. To prove the point, I looked at the similarities in the performance style and dramatic elements.

Performance


Despite the time period, clothing & performance differences, the interpretations have many similar performance styles and qualities that were used. Besides being performed in London, both plays have a similarity that their scripts still kept most of the original Shakespearean wording and the overall message. Going back to the example, stated before in the Differences section, when Juliet speaks from the balcony. In the original balcony scene from Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet (Act 2, Scene 2), Juliet spoke these words:
"Ah me!

O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?
William Faversham & Maud Adams in Romeo and Juliet, Empire Theatre, Broadway (1899)

Deny thy father and refuse thy name;
Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,
And I'll no longer be a Capulet.

'Tis but thy name that is my enemy;
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!
What's in a name? that which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet;
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd,
Retain that dear perfection which he owes
Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,
And for that name which is no part of thee
Take all myself."[10].

Now what the message that Juliet was trying to get across? She was calling out in search for Romeo. She then asked him to turn his back on his kin (prejudice and spite for her family). Juliet then said that hers and Romeo's names, which means their family names, are their enemies. She then told herself that names are just names. Names should not keep them apart since a "rose by any other name would smell as sweet?"

The opera gave the same message stated above. What changes is the wording and delivery. In Act 1 Scene 2, Juliet conveyed the message in french:

"Ah me!-And still I love him!
Romeo, why art thou Romeo?
Doff then thy name, for't is no part,
My loof thee! What rose we call
By other name would smell as sweetly:
Thou'rt no foe, 'tis thy name!" [6]

What was the translation in this speech? Juliet still called out for her Romeo and said that she loves him. Juliet then asked Romeo to turn back on his name (family prejudice and spite) for names are just one part. Would a rose with any other name smell as sweetly? She ended with stating that Romeo the person was not the enemy, the name Romeo Montague was. This wording still conveyed the message that Shakespeare originally wrote for Juliet in this scene. In the 2016 adaptation, as shown in the Differences section of this page, the original Shakespeare script and wording was kept as it is in this scene. Punctuation is the only difference.

Another similarity that was found was that the supporting characters in both plays. Despite the difference in importance between the adaptions, the supporting characters, still kept the same character roles & personalities. For example, Mercutio was still portrayed as the friend and companion to Romeo. The interpretations gave importance to his character growth and development, since he is a major plot changer. The two interpretations didn't change the way the characters interacted with Romeo & Juliet either.

Performance similarity is important to the message that Shakespeare wanted to convey when he wrote Romeo & Juliet, however as important as performance is, dramatic elements need to be looked at also.

Dramatic Elements


The 2016 and 1867 interpretations were both set in Verona, Italy. Both adaptations had the main plot settings that are needed for the story line: a balcony, grave, Juliet's bedroom and dance floor. Both versions had music that helped with portraying the mood & style of the performance. For both performances, the costumes for Romeo and Juliet were different but also, similar in the way that they showed personalities of Romeo & Juliet. For example, Juliet's dresses in both plays are kept light and innocent. Whereas Romeo's costumes are kept masculine and strong. In the 2016 adaptaion, Juliet's light costume contracts Romeo's dark one.

The big similarity that was found in these performances was the mood and theme. The mood found in both interpretations was the different passions of love, war, conflict, fear and pain. Despite interpreting the play differently, both plays come to this same theme portrayal. In the opera, the words and music brought this mood & theme to life. This was also true in the 2016 interpretation. This theme for the play comes out as the highlight and takeaway for both interpretations. Looking back to the original inspirations of Romeo & Juliet, the same theme is found: the different passions of loss, war, love, and pain. This is then the message that Shakespeare wanted to portray when writing Romeo & Juliet.

Conclusion


What is the message from the story of Romeo & Juliet? That love conjurers all despite human folly, that human conflict & wars are wrong in their conquest for justice, or that love is the most important thing in the world. These ideas come from the mood and theme that was portrayed from both interpretations looked at. Despite the many differences in performance style and dramatic elements, both interpretations still portrayed the same message. Going back to the original story and inspiration, Shakespeare was someone who was against conflicts and the wars going on. He was a romantic who wanted to make people happy. He was a writer who wrote every play for a purpose. This story the way it was written gives great lessons and messages for anyone in any time period. That is why the message still lives on. Through different interpretations throughout different time periods, the message of the different passions of pain, conflict and love still stay strong. Overall, Shakespeare's message still lives on and it continues to grown through new & different interpretations.

There are so many more interpretations that could be looked at for future research. For example, the Taming of the Shrew, Hamlet or Macbeth could be used to find other messages Shakespeare wanted to convey in those stories. To compare a movie or other Shakespeare play interpretations would also be a great research direction.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Maker, D. (2009, December 05). Romeo and Juliet Historical Context - Romeo and Juliet as a warning to Elizabeth . Retrieved May 12, 2017, from https://shakespearestudy.wordpress.com/plays/romeo-and-juliet-historical-context/
  2. 2.0 2.1 Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624). (2009, August 17). Retrieved May 26, 2017, from http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/wriothesley3.htm
  3. Brooke, Arthur. BROOKE'S 'ROMEUS AND JULIET' BEING THE ORIGINAL OF SHAKESPEARE'S 'ROMEO AND JULIET' NEWLY EDITED BY J. J. MUNRO. Ed. J.J. Munro. New York: Duffield and Company; London: Chatto & Windus, 1908.
  4. Wyndham, Henry Saxe. (1906). The annals of Covent Garden Theatre from 1732 to 1897. London : Chatto & Windus
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Gounod's Romeo and Juliet. (1867). Watson's Art Journal, 7(16), 244-246. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.wpi.edu/stable/20647340
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Barbier, J., Carré, M., Gounod, C., Shakespeare, W., Sapio, R., Pollack, O., & Moody-Manners Opera Company. (1912). Romeo & Juliet: Opera in five acts. Hull: White & Farrell.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Billington, M. (2016, May 26). Romeo and Juliet review – Branagh gives tragedy a touch of la dolce vita. Retrieved May 12, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2016/may/26/romeo-and-juliet-review-branagh-lily-james-richard-madden-garrick-theatre
  8. Williams, H. (2016, May 25). Romeo and Juliet, The Garrick Theatre, London: Teenage high drama, but Kenneth Branagh's show never plumbs the full depths of tragedy. Retrieved May 12, 2017, from http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/theatre-dance/reviews/romeo-and-juliet-the-garrick-theatre-london-teenage-high-drama-but-kenneth-branagh-s-show-never-a7049321.html
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Shakespeare, W., Branagh, K., & Oram, C. (2016). Romeo and Juliet. London: Nick Hern Books.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. MIT. Web. Retrieved May 15, 2017



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