Photographs Worth a Thousand Words

From Londonhua WIKI

Photographs Worth a Thousand Words

by Justine Roy

Photographs Worth a Thousand Words
Milestone Image
Justine Roy


The purpose of this project was to explore how photography has been used as a form of communication, reflecting on the social and political conditions of the time. I selected a few photographs that reflect British culture and analyzed how the photographer captures the subject and conveys his/her message to the viewer. To achieve this, I included historical background as needed. This project will provide breadth beyond my theater concentration.


This project explores photography that captures significant cultures, political states and living conditions of London throughout time. It deals with the history of London, a closer look at the culture of London and photography. My inspiration for this project came from a similar project my friend completed as her high school capstone. Her project dealt with major global issues throughout time and present day. She looked at past photographs of humanities issues and created her own photographs. My focus, however, is specifically on British culture and includes more analysis of the photographs. While there are galleries that focus on showcasing specific themes or time periods, my project spans a large time period, addresses a variety of topics and includes both background context for the image as well as an analysis.

Section 1: Existing Photographs

Photography can be a powerful outlet and tool. People can use it as a coping tool or a way to get their voice out. The British Journal of Photography recounts multiple instances of photography being used to adjust to a new environment, gain new understanding or speak out. David Gaberle took up photography after moving to London and struggling for a while. Now he travels internationally, capturing the essence of major cities. [1]Spencer Murphy gained new insight into the dirt biker subculture. He no longer sees them as reckless criminals but as a community of individuals seeking freedom from mundane life. [2] In recent years the British Journal of Photography has launched a new yearly campaign to showcase British culture and what it means to live in the United Kingdom called Portrait of Britain through creating a collection of professional and amateur photographs. Such photographs join ranks of photographs from throughout history that are treasured for the story they tell about British society. The Hyman Collection was created to share such material and contains iconic photographs from throughout the United Kingdom's history to modern day.
Despite the significance of photography, it is often disregarded by the artistic community. In 1954 the Virginia and Albert Museum was quoted saying that "art is a purely mechanical process into which the artist does not enter".[3] Furthermore, Peter P. Blank of the Metropolitan Museum of Art found that photography was left out of many significant art books and that photographs were not looked at from an artistic perspective. In later times there have been more critical analysis but the sections in literature on photography are notably short. [4]
Likewise, my research using scholarly portals such as JSTOR was able to find little analytical material on photojournalism from an artistic perspective. The emphasis of the material was placed on the historical or cultural condition depicted by the photograph. The photographs were used simply as visual aids in articles about a time period or cultural movement. Otherwise, articles focused on other stages of the photographer's careers that were considered more artistic. I noticed a trend in the lives of the photographers I researched. Many of them started off as assistants and/or took portraits. They would then feel motivated to take social action and take up some form of photojournalism. For some reason or other, they would then move away from photojournalism and develop their own style. That last stage in their career is what would capture the attention of scholars.
Therefore, my project looks at individual photographs and their significance more than has previously been done. I chose several photographs from The Hyman Collection as well as some from collections featured in the British Journal of Photography to analyze the message the photographs are telling.

London, Air Raid Shelters, East End Underground Station, November 12th, 1940

London, Air Raid Shelters, East End Underground Station, November 12th, 1940.JPG
London, Air Raid Shelters, East End Underground Station, November 12th, 1940 [5]
Artist Bill Brandt
Year c. 1940
Dimensions 25.1 x 19.5 cms (9.86 x 7.66 ins)
Location Private Collection


This photograph was taken on November 12th, 1940. This was about 10 days prior to the end of the Blitz. The Blitz was one of the major events in World War II for Britain. In early September of 1940, Hitler was aggravated at Britain's dominance over Luftwaffe and the bombing of German cities. In order to save face, the head of Luftwaffe, Hermann Goering, decided to change tactics and launch an air raid on Britain. His goal was that the bombings would destroy public moral and draw out all of Britain's forces to be destroyed. Instead, the shift of focus from attacking military bases gave the British the opportunity to strengthen their forces and gave the soldiers a stronger cause to fight for, the lives of their families and friends. The air raids lasted for 76 days. Bombs were dropped day and night. The bombs decimated infrastructure and left fires ravaging London. Similar raids were also held against Bristol, Manchester, Swansea, Liverpool, Cardiff, and Southampton.[6] Bill Brandt was commissioned to take this photograph and others documenting the conditions of the air-raid shelters by the Ministry of Information's Home Office in the fall of 1940. [7][8] The photograph has been noted for the contrast between light and dark created by using flash and long exposure. This mirrors the contrast in the subject of the photograph. The photograph captures dull, everyday life yet the chaos of people crowded into the shelters during a time of danger. [9] The photographs have been called "a moving portrait of London's resilience during the Blitz". [10]


This photograph captures the hardships that people had to go through during the Blitz. It depicts people sleeping in a metal shelter underground. People are packed together and have few personal belongings. All that can be seen are blankets and a few jackets. The photograph highlights a mother with her children. This heightens the emotional impact as women and children are traditionally seen as innocent and more vulnerable. The photographer uses perspective in this photograph to increase the drama. The vanishing point makes it appear as if this scene continues on for a ways.

God Save the Queen (Hampden Crescent, Paddington)

God Save the Queen (Hampden Crescent, Paddington).JPG
God Save the Queen (Hampden Crescent, Paddington) [11]
Artist Roger Mayne
Year c. 1957
Dimensions 58.4 x 78.5 cms (22.95 x 30.85 ins)
Location Quaritch, London


"God Save the Queen" was taken in 1965. The 1960s were a period of great change for Britain. The country was coming back from World War II with the rise of the baby boomers. Culture changed as this generation, whose parents wanted them to have it better than they did during the war, took full advantage of their freedom. Recreational drugs such as LSD became a part of culture. [12] The Beatles ushered in a new generation for music that broke down some of the social barriers. They made pop music and pop culture acceptable to multiple classes of people. [13] Miniskirts were introduced as the new fashion for women and feminism grew. [14] Several key events occurred in 1965 including the death of Winston Churchill, implementation of legislation against racial discrimination and abolition of the death penalty. [15] [16] The last event is significant for the reason that it diminished the power of the government. Roy Jenkins was elected into office who would later legalize abortion and homosexuality. People responded very differently to this change and still have differing opinions to this day.[17] The photographer, Roger Mayne, did most of his photography in North Kensington. His photography seemed to encourage new connections between the social classes. At the time Britain was establishing a new welfare system and reaching political compromises. Mayne's photography was noted for having a "scrupulous regard for truth". [18]


This photograph appears to portray a negative perspective on all the change that was taking place. First of all, the building is run down showing a state of decay. The sidewalk is crumbling. Secondly, the kids are supposed to be the future of the people and are part of the generation bringing about all the change. However, one kid is just laying down on the window sill of the abandoned building. Even the kids who should be full of energy, are run down. Perhaps most significantly, there is graffiti on the building saying "God Save the Queen". Within that statement, two symbols of tradition are called forth. The first is religion. Religion has had very strong roots in the country as England had a whole civil war over their official religion. The second symbol is the Queen. The monarchy is an establishment that continues today even though primarily only for the sake of tradition. The writer of the graffiti clearly felt as though such institutions and traditions were being threatened by the changes taking place in the country. As the person wanted the queen "saved" there is no doubt that the changes were seen as negative.

The Highest Product of Capitalism (After John Heartfield)

The Highest Product of Capitalism (After John Heartfield).JPG
The Highest Product of Capitalism (After John Heartfield) [19]
Artist Jo Spence
Year c. 1979
Dimensions 20.32 x 25.4 cms (7.99 x 9.98 ins)
Location Jo Spence Memorial Archive Richard Saltoun Gallery, London


This photograph was taken during a period of feminist movements. Some of the changes brought about by this movement include the passage of the Equal Pay Act, Sex Discrimination Act and Domestic Violence Act as well as the formation of the Women's Aid Federation. [20] While significant milestones had been reached towards female rights, women continued protesting for further equality. Photographer, Jo Spence participated in the movement. Spence came from a working-class family, started off as a professional photographer and then shifted her focus to political photography. [21] While the photography began as photojournalism, she found that style limited. Instead she chose to add an element to her photographs that was posed, enabling the photographs to act as a photographic equivalent to political cartoons. [22] This photograph was modeled off another photograph, "Spitzenprodukte des kapitalismus"[23] by John Heartfield, taken in 1932. Heartfield was also a political photographer during the early 1900s and opposed Hitler. [24] "Spitzenprodukte des kapitalismus" addressed the gap in classes as a man seeking work stood next to a mannequin bride wearing a pricey dress. [25]


There appear to be multiple similar themes in this photograph. The sign says "I'll take (almost) any work". This could be indicating a struggle for women to get employment at the time despite the progress being made towards women's rights and equality. Furthermore, the original photograph by John Heartfield called attention to the gap in classes. This could be functioning the same way in Spence's photograph but in regard to the lack of equality between men and women. It is also interesting that Spence chose to cross dress when recreating this image. The image of her cross dressed may symbolize that there is no real difference between her as a female and a man. This would further the idea that women deserve the same rights.

Resort 2, Fairy with Cigarette, 2009

Resort 2, Fairy with Cigarette.JPG
Resort 2, Fairy with Cigarette, 2009 [26]
Artist Anna Fox
Year c. 2009
Dimensions 73.66 x 91.44 cms (28.95 x 35.94 ins)


Modern British culture is largely one of acceptance. In 1967, homosexuality was legalized. In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became Britain's first female prime minister.[27] This acceptance is reflected in modern entertainment. In 2011, Doctor Who, a popular British family show, introduced a couple that was both lesbian and interspecies. In 2014, the couple kissed. While 6 complaints were filed to the television regulator, the audience response was largely positive. [28] In addition, the National Theater's production of "Twelfth Night" by William Shakespeare features several gender swapped characters and gay relationships. This is in contrast to the United States where gay marriage was only just legalized in 2015 and people who identify as other than heterosexual still face mistreatment. Another notable difference seen in British culture is the amount of smoking people still do. While smoking cigarettes has largely taken on a social stigma in the United States, it appears to still be fairly widely done in the UK. The photographer, Anna Fox, is known for capturing lifestyles "outside the sophistication of a cosmopolitan world", "situations and characters of a non-elite social realm" [29]. This photograph is probably part of her "Back to the Village" series which captures people of all ages dressed up in costumes for various events such as parades and Halloween. The series speaks to the "desires to dress up an transcend"[30].


This photograph is all about contrast. It defies stereotypes. The clashing elements of a man dressed as a fairy who is smoking clearly shows that people do not fit into simple classifications but transcends the male stereotypes. The man is big and bald yet dressed in a stereotypically pink and girly outfit. The sight of the man smoking goes against the idea of childhood innocence invoked by the fairy costume. Even the bright pink costume stands out against the darker and blue surroundings. However, the casual nature of the photograph tells the viewer that it is ok. The man does not appear to care, nor does anyone else around him, therefore neither should the viewer. In such a way, the photograph promotes diversity, individuality and acceptance. This captures the culture of everyday people.

A Gather of Sheep, Long Island Farm, from Empire

A Gather of Sheep, Long Island Farm, from Empire.JPG
A Gather of Sheep, Long Island Farm, from Empire [31]
Artist Jon Tonks
Year c. 2014
Dimensions 101.6 x 101.6 cms (39.93 x 39.93 ins)


In 2014 there were a couple of major political shifts and events. Most significant was the vote on Scottish independence. The result was 55% of people chosing for Scotland to remain in the United Kingdom and 45% wanting independence. Another shift in the politics was an increase in support for the UK Independence Party. This party held anti-European Union sentiment. [32]


The image of the sheep gathered around the flag is a very patriotic image. In the Bible, Jesus is depicted as a shepherd with Christians being his sheep. Likewise, the sheep symbolize the British people. The British flag represents the United Kingdom. The sheep are gathered around the flag as the people stand by their country. Within the sheep there are young and old just as citizens of all ages feel patriotism towards the country. This sentiment resonates with the political climate that year. The vote, while divided, for Scotland to remain part of the United Kingdom is an example of the people standing by the country as opposed to leaving it. The image may also be suggestive towards those people who wanted independence. It can be sending the message to follow along like a sheep would, stay a part of the herd and stay with the country. In addition, the increased support for a party against the European Union also meant an increase in support for national autonomy. In the case of the American colonies, this desire for autonomy was linked to the people strongly identifying with their colony. They believed strongly in their own colony and did not want interference from others. Likewise, this can indicate a similar loyalty in the British people to their country and way of life. Therefore, the image also reflects this renewal of patriotism.

In Your Dreams

In Your Dreams.jpg
In Your Dreams [33]
Artist Ken Russel
Year c. 1955


The Teddy Boys and Girls were the first youth subculture in Britain. They existed in the early 1950s post World War II. Having grown up in the war, they were tough. With the war being over they had more time for leisure than the previous generations. These youth came from the working class. Their style drew on Edwardian fashion, giving them a bit of a refined look. In part, they were asserting their importance in the class divided society. Despite their outward appearance, these kids were rebellious. While not as much is documented on Teddy Girls, Teddy boys were despised by adults. Most carried weapons and many committed violent crimes and vandalism in order to assert dominance and claim territory. They quickly became associated with the crime in the city. However, these youths also embodied the new vitality coming back to the city as they embraced their freedom.[34]


This photograph captures the culture of the Teddy Boys and Girls. The focus of the picture is a Teddy girl. She appears to have quite an attitude as she looks defiantly at the camera. Meanwhile, some of the boys in the background peer mischievously at the camera. This is consistent with their rebellious behavior. This impression of their boldness is heightened by the camera angle. An upward angle is said to give a sense of power to the subject. Likewise, the slight upward angle towards the kids shows their power in society. They were the next generation and shaping the culture. Their violent and criminal activities could also impact people's lives powerfully. In addition, the photo shows the style of the Teddy girl as the primary subject is wearing the typical blazer with jeans.

Section 2: Deliverable

Photojournalism is used to convey a story or message. Anybody can take a picture of something. It takes a true photographer to capture an image with meaning. It is by no means easy. Thought and consideration must go into every photograph. It must capture a scene and it should elicit a response from the viewer. Art is often said to be about how it makes the viewer feel. By extension, this is true of photography. For example, Bill Brandt's photographs of the bomb shelters both capture the scene of what the people were experiencing at the time while creating sympathy in viewers.
While there is no set method for photojournalism, my research revealed some techniques and components that have been used. Much of the photography I came across featured people. Bill Brandt Roger Mayne, and Anna Fox all captured people's lives. The human element of the photographs make them relevant to the viewers. They are about real people and real lives that could be the viewer's own. In the case of war time photography, the human element can bring about sympathy and compassion for those suffering. In the case of Anna Fox who captures everyday people, viewers can see their own lives reflected in the photographs. Other times the human element can be used to depict reactions to a situation. Facial expressions can be a direct indicator of how the subjects feel about whatever is transpiring in the photograph. Sometimes the human element can be indirect. Mediums such as newspapers and street art can also express people's reactions to situations. Jo Spence brought her own technique to photography, often heightening the human aspect. Jo Spence found that simply taking photographs of what she could observe was limited in the message that could be conveyed and introduced a new human element into her photography. She staged her photographs. While the messages would be real and related to what was actually transpiring, she would add elements to her photographs in order to further the message. Her modifications could use tools such as irony to really emphasize her point. While there was often the typical human elements in the photographs, her manipulation of the images served as another way to introduce the opinions of people. Overall, the involvement of people in photography aids in creating a relevant message for the viewer.
My goal for the deliverable was to capture some of my own photography of London that I felt conveyed aspects of the current culture. All of these photographers that I researched at some point saw something in the UK that they wanted to capture. For Jo Spence it was the injustice against women of her time. For Ken Russel it was the subculture of the Teddy Girls. My time in London revealed part of their culture to me that I attempted to capture in some photographs. However, I learned that photography and photojournalism is not as simple as taking pictures. I learned that a successful photograph needs to be more than just an image of London. Unfortunately, I faced several disadvantages. Most simply, I was and am an amateur. The photographers I studied had years of practice and varying forms of training. Looking at some examples of photojournalism does not really qualify as training. Secondly, as professional photographers they had more privileges than I did. Some of their photography, such as Bill Brandt's photography of the bomb shelters, required media passes to gain access. Not only did I lack that access, but significant events that could have theoretically produced powerful photographs would not have been safe to be around. Furthermore, being a professional photographer gives people credibility. People are more likely to agree to a professional taking photographs of them as opposed to a random stranger. Such photographers may also spend time building up trust in communities with the people there. In contrast, it seemed best for me to avoid photographing people. I wanted to respect people's privacy and to photograph them would have quite possibly required paperwork. Therefore, for all of these reasons, and possibly more, the photography I captured did not rise to the level of photojournalism. The rest of the deliverable will look at the photographs I took, my intent for them, their shortfalls and possible ways to improve them.

Red Buses

"Double-Decker" and "Passenger" attempt to capture several iconic images associated with London. The focus of the pictures is on the classic double-decker buses. These buses are closely associated with London culture. It would be difficult for a visitor to London not to see one as they are all over the streets. They are also a symbol of the public transportation system as a whole. Public transportation is a large part of living in the city as there is limited room for cars. In London it is particularly glorified. It seems odd that something as common as public transportation would have its own extensive line of merchandise but it does. It is also raining in the pictures showing the notorious rainy weather of the United Kingdom. "Passenger" has some additional elements. First of all, it was taken from the perspective of a bus passenger. This was done to give a more personal and immersive feel. Secondly, there is a sticker that someone left on the window. The shape of the sticker is the standard transit logo, again showing its pervasiveness. The sticker says "#HopeNotHate". This little sticker displays the open culture that has been created in the country and the belief in acceptance. It is a little bit of positivity amidst all the chaos that the city can be. Finally, I made some artistic modifications to the photographs. I changed the photographs to black and white aside from a few colors. I preserved the bold and iconic red as well as blue and yellow. The red and blue comprise the transport logo and call attention to it as a focus of the pictures. The yellow is used on the buses and for the emergency exit sign, again drawing attention to common but integral parts of the buses. The red is predominant in the pictures to focus on the buses. It is also a bit symbolic. Not only is the red significant because it is the color of the buses but it is the color of the telephone boxes.
The foremost problem with these photographs is that they fail to capture a story, give a message or create an emotional response. They are simply artsy photographs of and from buses. The buses can be seen but there is no take away from the photographs. Perhaps a message could be created about the relationship between the culture and the transportation system. One thought for achieving this would be to capture people interacting with the transportation system. This could be photographs of people using and relying on the transportation network. It can also be photographs capturing people using the merchandise from Transport For London. I believe that it would show a passion for the transport system if a person, especially a citizen, is using a transport themed tote bag or has a transport themed print hung in their living room. This would be showing conscious decisions to further interact with the transportation system.

Then & Now

These photographs try to capture how London is a blend of the old and the new. London has been around since Roman times and still holds onto bits of those times. For example, there is still a section of Roman wall standing by Liverpool. While there is an abundance of old architecture, the city is also modern and still growing. There are skyscrapers and construction taking place all over the city. My photographs capture this blend of the old and the new. In "Liverpool" there is an example of older architecture on the left and a modern building on the right. In the back there is the iconic Gherkin and a high rise building. Construction cranes can also be seen indicating the continuing growth and development of the city. "Times" features an underground sign in the foreground with the Tower of London in the background. The Tower of London is a historic site that was once really used by royalty and as a fortress. In contrast, the underground sign represents modern society. Both photographs utilize the rule of three. In "Times" the underground sign is situated roughly where the right division line would be. In "Liverpool" the vertical lines are created by each side of the street and the horizontal lines are formed by the edge of the street and the skyline. It additionally has an element of perspective, focusing towards the construction in the back. The bus aids in forming a strong line that leads to the background.
Unfortunately, these photographs fail in that they fail to speak for themselves. Particularly so in "Liverpool", the photographs only appear to depict areas in London. It is not evident from the photographs alone that the theme is the mixture of the old and new elements of the city. A goal for these photographs could be for them to tell more of a story. For example, it could be interesting to capture the story of a building over the times. There are buildings that have been repurposed over the years. Old hospitals may now be used for something else such as a school. Therefore, expanding on these photographs to capture the contrast of the old buildings with their new purposes could add an interesting new element. Another way this could be achieved is by comparing new and old photographs of an area to see how old structures have remained or been modified and new buildings have been introduced.


Photojournalism has a lot to do with change. Photographs are used to capture the changing conditions of the time such as the growth of the Teddy Girl subculture or the change of lifestyle to adjust to war. Photographs are also used to bring about change such as Jo Spence's photographs during the women's rights movements. In these photographs I sought to show the changing conditions in London that are taking place on both a physical and cultural level. On a basic level, the change is seen in the skyline. Cranes and construction equipment are visible everywhere. That is what my photographs highlight. While some construction is maintenance, a lot of it is the result of gentrification in London. Gentrification is the movement of people and money into an area. A large cause of this movement in London was the 2012 Olympics because it was held in London. This attracted more people to the area. This created a demand for the area. Areas in travel zones two and three which were traditionally outside the wealth of central London had an influx of people. This drove property prices up. With the money comes demand for new stores and cafes. The East End, which has traditionally been an ethnic community of various immigrants over the years, is experiencing such gentrification. The old buildings and small shops are being replaced with new buildings. Meanwhile, the inhabitants are struggling to keep up with increasing prices and rent.
Again, these photographs fail to speak for themselves. Gentrification is very much a cultural issue, one involving the people. However, there is no human element in the photographs to indicate the struggle and changing conditions. Therefore, given the time, my goal would be to really explore the East End. That way I could capture how new businesses and chain businesses are taking over the old, community businesses as well as the reactions of the citizens. The East End is known for its street art. Therefore, I would not be surprised to find street art of people's reactions to the changes taking place. This would be a good long term project as the changes take place over the next many years.


Photographs can contain important messages and act as windows into the time and place that is being photographed. They can contain stories about their subject and reveal the culture of the time. They can also be a reflection of the photographer's beliefs. Despite this, photography has faced discrimination in the artistic community. While the artistic elements of photography have gained more recognition, some styles, such as photojournalism, are still largely ignored. This opens up quite a bit of material that can still be researched. While there are always more photographs that can be looked at, the development of the recognition of photography as an art form is probably another viable research topic. Elements and techniques that go into photography and photojournalism would be a good area to pursue. Possible photography projects might include homelessness and the political environment (especially considering Brexit) as well as improving and expanding on the themes I began to explore.


  1. D'Aliesio, S. (2017). Photobook: Metropolight by david gaberle. British Journal of Photography, Retrieved from
  2. Hamilton, R. S. (2017). Wheelies, balaclavas and broken bones: Welcome to UK BikeLife. British Journal of Photography, Retrieved from
  3. Blank, P. (1990). THE IMPACT OF PERSONAL AND CULTURAL BIAS ON THE LITERATURE OF CAMERALESS PHOTOGRAPHY: Difficulties in the Literature Search and the Librarian's Response. Art Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North America, 9(2), 96-100. Retrieved from
  4. Blank, P. (1990). THE IMPACT OF PERSONAL AND CULTURAL BIAS ON THE LITERATURE OF CAMERALESS PHOTOGRAPHY: Difficulties in the Literature Search and the Librarian's Response. Art Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North America, 9(2), 96-100. Retrieved from
  5. Brandt, B. (1940). London, air raid shelters, east end underground station, november 12th, 1940. Private Collection: Private Collection.
  6. Germany bombs london. Retrieved from
  7. HAWORTH-BOOTH, M., & MELLOR, D. (1985). BILL BRANDT: Behind the Camera: PHOTOGRAPHS 1928-1983. Aperture, (99), 1-99. Retrieved from
  8. Field, G. (2002). Nights Underground in Darkest London: The Blitz, 1940-1941. International Labor and Working-Class History, (62), 11-49. Retrieved from
  9. Field, G. (2002). Nights Underground in Darkest London: The Blitz, 1940-1941. International Labor and Working-Class History, (62), 11-49. Retrieved from
  10. Brooke, S. (2006). War and the Nude: The Photography of Bill Brandt in the 1940s. Journal of British Studies, 45(1), 118-138. doi:10.1086/497058
  11. Mayne, R. (1957). God save the queen (hampden crescent, paddington). Quaritch, London:
  12. Watson, K.The 1960s the decade that shook britain. Retrieved from
  13. Morris, I. (2014). 1965: The year modern britain was born review – analysis of a revolution. The Guardian, Retrieved from
  14. Watson, K.The 1960s the decade that shook britain. Retrieved from
  15.   1965: New UK race law 'not tough enough. Retrieved from
  16. Britain:1945 to present. Retrieved from
  17. Morris, I. (2014). 1965: The year modern britain was born review – analysis of a revolution. The Guardian, Retrieved from
  18. Haworth-Booth, M. (1988). Where We've Come From: Aspects of Postwar British Photography. Aperture, (113), 2-9. Retrieved from
  19. Spence, J. (1979). The highest product of capitalism (after john heartfield). Richard Saltoun Gallery, London: Jo Spence Memorial Archive.
  20. Shrew. Retrieved from
  21. WILSON, S. (2015). Art labor, sex politics; feminist effects in 1970s british art and performance University of Minnesota Press.
  22. Rosenblum, B. (1988). Feminist Review, (29), 151-154. doi:10.2307/1395158
  23. Heartfield, J. (1932). Spitzenprodukte des kapitalismus
  24. Blumberg, N.John heartfield Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc.
  25. WILSON, S. (2015). Art labor, sex politics; feminist effects in 1970s british art and performance University of Minnesota Press.
  26. Fox Anna. (2009). Resort 2, fairy with cigarette, 2009
  27. Britain:1945 to present. Retrieved from
  28. Williams, K. (2014). Doctor who: Lesbian kiss in series 8 debut will not be investigated by ofcom. Wales Online, Retrieved from
  29. Cotton, C. (2008). ANNA FOX: PHOTOGRAPHS, 1983–2007. Aperture, (192), 82-83. Retrieved from
  30. Cotton, C. (2008). ANNA FOX: PHOTOGRAPHS, 1983–2007. Aperture, (192), 82-83. Retrieved from
  31. Tonks, J. (2014). A gather of sheep, long island farm, from empire
  32. United kingdom profile - timeline. (2017). Retrieved from
  33. Russel, K. (1955). In your dreams
  34. Bell, A. H. (2014). Teddy boys and girls as neo-flâneurs in postwar london. Literary London: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Representation of London, 11(2) Retrieved from

External Links

If appropriate, add an external links section