From Londonhua WIKI
Here at WPI, I have taken two Humanities courses, both related to film. HU2551 was a chance to explore my interest in the history of film and cinematography, while AR2401 helped me learn about what goes into a video production. In London I hope to further that experience and apply the theory of film with practice planning and creating a short video experience. I also hope to explore photography, as it is a topic I am personally passionate about. I look forward to sharing the takeaways of my experiences!
|Year||Class of 2020|
- 1 Jacob Dupuis
- 2 Milestone 1
- 3 Milestone 2
- 4 Milestone 3: Art Capstone
- 5 Activity Journal
- 5.1 Day 1 Activities
- 5.2 Movie Sets
- 5.3 National Gallery
- 5.4 British Museum
- 5.5 St. Paul's Cathedral
- 5.6 Natural History Museum
- 5.7 Victoria and Albert Museum
- 5.8 Tate Modern
- 5.9 Museum of London
- 5.10 Tate Britain
- 5.11 Hampton Court Palace
- 5.12 Museum of London Docklands
- 5.13 Imperial War Museum
- 5.14 Horniman Museum & Gardens
- 5.15 London Science Museum
- 5.16 Wallace Collection
- 5.17 Romeo & Juliet at the Globe Theatre
- 5.18 The English Bus Tour
- 5.19 Windsor Castle
- 5.20 Transformers Event
- 5.21 Concerts
Modern Galleries: London
Objective: Create a video that showcases recently developed art galleries in London that provide chances for artists to display modern and innovation artwork for the communities in London.
Summary: This project takes a look at the art of documentary film making and how different styles of documentary are used to tell a story. We created a documentary on Modern Art Galleries in London, using the information that we learned from our research. London is home to incredible art galleries, and we decided that it would be a great subject to document. In our research, we utilized resources found in the library of the British Film Institute, one of the largest film institution in the world. Our project looked at White Cube Gallery, Unit London, and Serpentine Gallery & Pavilion. We focused on the details of the current displays, and how they come together to create these exhibits.
Regent Street: Building Modern Design into Historical Sites
Objective: Over time every city experiences change and growth as technology develops and demand for modernization occurs. This project will observe how 21st Century architecture fits in the classic English city and how modern designers are incorporating historical features into sustainable commercial locations.
Summary: In this project I examined Regent Street and how it evolved into the busy, iconic tourist center of London that it is today. The creative piece involves creating a render of a potential artistic platform that is functional and does not change anything about the existing buildings. In the project, I researched the history of the street and summarized it along with key figures for the background. In the creative piece I then took an image of an under utilized section of the street, and blended it with a 3D render of a canopy design that I had created for the project. I also included architectural rendering features and mimicked actual design renders with what I had available.
Milestone 3: Art Capstone
Photography as art and science in London
Objective: This milestone looks at Photography in the end of the 19th century in London and America. The background explores the Linked Ring group and Photo-Secession movement, and how photography moved from just being a science to being an artistic field that utilizes science to further the technical aspects of the craft.
Summary: This project looked at the historical development of Photography in London and applies some of those principles to photographs that I created here in the city. It provides a summary of how modern photography came to bloom, and how it influenced developing techniques in today's digital photography world. The works of the Linked Ring are often studied in a historical or practical way, but my project combined both with modern techniques. Instead of focusing on the experiments or technology of the time period, the project looked at how the styles can be adapted to use with modern cameras. The background of the project contains information about what led up to this shift of how photography was viewed by society as the 20th century began.
The activity journal represents an ongoing log of reflections gained through each and every project activity on the calendar.
Day 1 Activities
On our first day we navigated ourselves to the Westminster Abbey, a place that I really had never seen and only heard mentioned in movies. Upon meeting our tour guide Carr, and leaving the cold London morning to enter the Abbey, I was almost shocked at what I saw. Westminster was full of more history, famous moments and people, and beautiful architecture than I could have ever imagined. Carr was an excellent tour guide, showing us all the relevant information, and extra tidbits of American and Engineering history. He was passionate about the material and only unable to answer one question of our group (which was how many stones it took to build the church). Having a guide who could point out details of the stonework, the Royal Wedding, and who was buried (and their backstory) was incredible. He even after the tour, explained to a few of us how the Abbey was used after the recent terror attacks, and it's memorial to victims of senseless violence, relating his own personal experience. At the conclusion of our tour we got a picture with Carr at the rear of the church, and he pointed out one last touch that I enjoyed the most out of the whole place. The latest addition of the Westminster Abbey is a series of statues of martyrs above the door, of many faiths [Pictured]. Maximilian Kolbe, and Martin Luther King Jr., were faces I recognized, and felt that it truly provided an even warmer welcome to the beautiful church, while honoring those that the world looks at as honorable role-models.
Tower of London
Following the adventures at Westminster Abbey, we split up into smaller groups and each headed off to Tower of London. After grabbing SIM Cards and a bite to eat, we began exploring the World Heritage Site. Tower of London was a wonderful time and provided a chance to explore just as much outside on the grounds as it did inside among buildings and the walls. The center White Tower held interactive exhibits on the evolution of weaponry and the castle's defense, which at times was quite fascinating. It was also interesting that the advertised 204 steps in total was actually wrong (we counted 207 due to some uneven floor levels, and double checked). The guides around the tower were full of life and told fables while giving interesting facts about the history and the design of the Tower over time. It was also truly incredible to see the Crown Jewels, and the wealth that was on display in the vaults. This was truly marvelous as you could see the painstaking design and craftsmanship of these gold and diamond pieces. It was worth going through twice for us, just to get a better look at the largest diamonds in the world. Attached is a picture of me on the Tower's outer walls, with the famed Tower Bridge.
When exploring on the first day or two of the trip during the scavenger hunt, we came across a street that was shut down with people running all over and shouting, and full of old looking cabs and cars. Upon closer inspection, there were giant tubes that stuck up over the street and poured rain down on demand. We had stumbled across a movie set, and asked the security guard about the project who revealed that it was the set for a forthcoming movie entitled 'The Death and Life of John F. Donovan'. The movie stars Natalie Portman, Jessica Chastain and Kit Harrington. We got to witness how the crew interacted with the actors, and how they dressed up this small side street into a bustling chaotic rainy day in London.
The following day we walked by yet another shoot, this time of Stan and Ollie, a remake about the classic early Hollywood actors Stan Laurel, and Oliver Hardy. Later that afternoon we walked by the production in a different location, this time watching the crew turn the Lyceum Theatre into an old Hollywood cinema.
Early one afternoon we discovered another movie set, hidden among office buildings on a quiet sunny Sunday. Unsure if we could enter, we asked a group of security guards what the film was and they answered "We don't know." At this point we had learned that the answer usually meant it was a large budget production, so we politely asked if we could walk through. With that one of the security guards escorted us through the set. As she led us, we witnessed a scene being staged involving bike couriers and a famous actress being directed. Once we were out of the shooting area we asked another guard what the film was again and this time, he revealed the name of the 2018 Warner Bros. blockbuster. Later on the scavenger hunt, we came across the same crew again, this time in a public space with just a few people. The director of the film was in the middle of the intersection, taking charge of the camera as they recorded a shot 6 or 7 times. We watched the actress and Academy Award winner, Alicia Vikander, and her stunt double bike through the traffic around a corner. Eventually as they picked up, we stood with them and observed how the shoot was concluded.
The first activity my group set out on was to visit the National Gallery. This vast building had an incredible collection of paintings and altarpieces that even in our two hour visit, we did not see entirely. We saw several famous paintings and many that our group recognized from our previous experiences in school. I was amazed by just how incredibly detailed or large some of the paintings were, and even those dating back to the 1300s were in pristine condition. Overall we found that the building housing the paintings was just as incredible as the art itself, and constantly found ourselves looking up to admire the vaulted ceilings or the modern etch-work on the glass in the old domes. Following our visit, we then contributed to an article on the National Gallery and works inside of it together.
We visited the British Museum, arriving early before swarms of people gathered.We made an effort to see every exhibit we could at the museum and spent a large portion of our time in the Egyptian and Greek areas as that is what pertained to our group members projects, and what we found the most fascinating to see. The scale and quality of the carvings and stonework was truly unbelievable and the museum is a place everyone in our group felt was worth visiting again. In particular, drawings in the King's Library rooms and details about the city of London may be useful for me to revisit for my second milestones, as they can provide a historical look at the city's development and architecture. We then went on to contributing pictures and information on the British Museum's page.
St. Paul's Cathedral
Visiting St. Paul's Cathedral was truly an experience that I enjoyed and took a lot out of. When taking the self-guided tour throughout the grand building I found myself noticing parts of the church that I had seen in pictures before. Many aspects of the building were magnificent to the human eye in a way that pictures could not capture. The scale and the detail in the work was truly elaborate. I was particularly interested in how some aspects of the church were adapted for modern use, similar to how my second milestone looks at on Regent Street. While they did not adapt the space to commercial use/modernize it, St. Paul's has turned into a formal house of prayer for all who wish to participate, with an alter moved in of the choir area and high alter. This position creates a more personalized atmosphere in the cathedral and feels more inviting, which as the tour informs is how the message and approach of the Anglican church has shifted as well. As Regent Street is owned by the Crown Estate, its primary use has shifted over time as well, with the street opening up to businesses after being used as a private path for royalty to access parks.
Natural History Museum
The Natural History Museum visit was one of the lesser of trips overall for me personally. Initially the exhibits sounded intriguing and did have great demonstrations and examples, I found that overall the museum was geared towards a lower aged audience than my group and we constantly found ourselves not looking at the contents of the museum but the way that the children enjoyed interacting with and learning, as we ourselves did not learn as much. Overall the museum did offer interesting things to me, as I got to see many many dinosaur fossils that seemed larger than life, and the design work that went into the exhibits was top notch. On the way out however is where I believe that I got the most from the trip. The building's cathedral like appearance remains essentially the same as it did in 1881 when the museum was launched, but on the backside the research centers and academic parts are new, slick modern buildings with glass and steel being the primary materials used in construction. I found this interesting the transition from modern to classical is done seamlessly inside and you feel like you really have traveled through time, entering under the original spires and exiting next to the giant cocoon of the Darwin Center. This was related to my Milestone 2 and the most interesting portion of my time at the museum.
Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum was a museum that I had never previously heard of before, and I wish that was not the case. As a group, we spent nearly 3 hours wandering the museum before we decided that we would not be able to see it all in one trip and plan on returning to revisit this site in the future. The museum was an incredible place to spend time and the collections where so big that I frequently had to check to make sure we were not lost. The museum covered modern and historical art and design, across time and cultures, often providing interactive displays or informational spaces that were interesting. I was fascinated in particular by the art in some of the skylights and stairwells, especially an interactive LED exhibit. Overall I felt this has been my favorite activity we have done so far and I only got to scratch the surface of what it has to offer. I plan on going back and looking at the interactive Pink Floyd / Sennheiser experience that was sold out during our visit. This museum also linked into 2 of my milestones, which focus on design and architecture. The collection of John Nash's works in London and around Regent street will be particularly valuable to find for my second milestone. Following the trip, I created the article for the V&A Museum, and will continue to add to it on my second trip back there.
The Tate Modern museum was an interesting visit, and the first 'modern' art gallery that we visited. This museum is one that I plan on revisiting for the purpose of my milestone, as it held a lot of information that I feel could assist me in my research. The Tate's building was one of the most impressive things to me, with a vast open courtyard-like room inside. I appreciated the interactive exhibits, though found the museum to be quite crowded at some points of our visit. Going up to the 10th floor's observation deck was spectacular and provided an incredible view of London, the River Thames and St. Paul's cathedral. The bottom floor of the museum houses the Books for Architects exhibit that provides interesting perspectives on how architecture in London and across the world is interacted with in everyday lives. As several of my milestones relate to architecture I plan on revisiting this exhibit and listening to the lectures provided. The most interesting part of the trip overall for me was a gallery in the bottom of the museum by Janet Cardiff, entitled Forty Part Motet. Forty Part Motet is an audio experience that consists of 40 speakers in a ring around observation benches. Each speaker records the voice of an individual choir member, and the result is a beautiful surround sound experience unlike anything I have ever heard before.
Museum of London
The Museum of London is a great example of how to integrate a museum about the city, into the heart of the city. Nested in the middle of an intersection and only accessible by bridges, the museum feels like it was built to be a part of everyday life. Once inside, you forget however that you are in a busy office area and are immersed in very neat displays and history. I found this museum to be one of the best that we visited, with interesting displays and uses of technology throughout. The overall size was smaller than some of the large institutions that we had been to before, but it held just as much to grab your attention, through interactive projections and films. The most exciting piece of the visit overall was the 2012 Olympic Cauldron which was on display with guides that explained how the art piece was created. While the museum held a lot of information for some of my group members milestones, it did not relate to mine as much. One small section on the development of the city was useful for reference notes regarding John Nash's Regent Street project, and I captured photos of the information to use later.
Tate Britain sits on the side of the River Thames, across from the Hollywood-famed MI6 building. The gallery held a nice collection of paintings, sculptures and photographs ranging from the 1600s to modern art. Some of the exhibits also included video media including "Blue", a conceptual film involving an unchanging blue screen. I enjoyed visiting the Tate Britain as it was a smaller, and less crowded gallery compared to Tate Modern, but still housed interesting displays. The most intriguing part for me was the display that you see when you enter the gallery, hanging in the grand hallway across from the stairwell. This exhibit was entitled Forms of Space, and consisted of large amounts of intrinsically shaped lights hanging across the gallery. As you traveled through the generally empty space, the initial sight was disassembled and you could see the lights break into different layers, until you were under the final layer, and had walked across the entire museum. I felt this was an excellent way of pulling viewers in, and catching their attention as they begin their visit, and I added it to the Tate Britain's wiki page after the visit.
Hampton Court Palace
Starting the 3rd week by visiting Hampton Court Palace was an incredible time. After a long commute to the outskirts of the city, my group and I arrived to the Palace, located on the edge of the River Thames. We were lucky enough to visit on a bright and warm sunny day, which encouraged us to explore the gardens along the sides of the Palace before we entered. Upon entering, it was interesting to see the different displays and historical settings inside the walls. We found that the different games scattered among the rooms from the time period were fun and interesting, and a nice touch that allowed visitors to enjoy the common spaces as they were meant to be enjoyed. I found it interesting to play Mill, a game that I had previously played, in its original form with rules that were slightly different than versions I was used to. After grabbing food at the Court Cafe, we ventured out the back of the Palace into the incredible garden and yard. This place was full of life, with people walking and sitting under trees and reading. It was full of birds, large swans, and even large fish in almost every pond or fountain. I spent the most amount of time here, sitting and working on my milestones as it was an incredible atmosphere to enjoy.
Museum of London Docklands
The Museum of London Docklands, located in Canary Wharf is an interesting museum. The Canary Wharf area is one that I have not really been to, but felt very different than the rest of the city. The museum is located on the water, but around it are large skyscrapers and office buildings. The content in the museum is similar to the Museum of London's but focuses in more on the industry life and development of the shipping area (the Docklands, as the name suggests). Overall the exhibits were well put together with interesting displays and content. The modern development history was interesting, as they showed how bridges, buildings and the underground in that area had been developed, and how Canary Wharf became a financial and economic hub of the city and of Europe. I found the most interesting section of the museum however to be the effects of WWII on the docklands, and how they continued to operate during bomb attacks, while being vital to supporting Britain throughout the war.
Imperial War Museum
Our visit to the Imperial War Museum was one that took up most of the day, as the museum was packed full of fascinating information and exhibits. From the outside it has the appearance of an older, church like building, but inside I was amazed and the sleek modern design elements and the vast open courtyard with full-size planes hanging above you. Starting on the first floor we worked our way in a crowd through the WWI exhibit, which was full of haunting sights and information. The overall mood in the room was somber, and there was so much to read and take in. After that we moved upstairs through WWII, and the more modern displays, which all were equally as interesting. I found the Syrian photography gallery to be extremely impactful and the Detention exhibit to be full of somewhat shocking information. Lastly at the top floor of the building was the holocaust exhibit. I went through the entire thing and found it to be one of the most well done museum exhibits I have ever seen. Overall the visit to the Imperial Warm Museum was a very great experience, and very emotionally impactful.
Horniman Museum & Gardens
Visiting the Horniman museum on a very hot day was a great idea, as we got to spend most of our time enjoying the vast gardens out and around the museum itself. Inside, I felt it was more geared towards children and not a very memorable museum, but the location outside of the city was a wonderful get away. Being able to see the view of the buildings that we usually are walking among was interesting, and the peace and quiet around us was quite relaxing. Paired up with another group, we were able to venture with a large number of people, chatting and getting to know others as we walked around. Overall while the museum was not notable, the visit to the gardens was a wonderful time.
London Science Museum
The London Science Museum was a perfect stop for a student of WPI. I found this to have a lot of fascinating displays and collections of technology. While a lot of the museum was ticketed to access, the sections we did look at were quite fascinating. It was very interesting to see the collections on Robert Goddard and rocketry, and seeing the influence that he and WPI had on world history. Similarly seeing pieces of the moon, or space craft was all very interesting and enjoyable for people of any age! The model section had a lot of interesting technologies and it was very cool to see how some things evolved from crude tools to refined machines. In the basement the evolution of home technologies section provided a lot of very cool interactive displays that may have been geared to a younger crowd, but my group still found enjoyable. In the back of the museum, the information section near the entrance to the IMAX theatre was incredibly interesting and I wish more museums had something like it. We spent a decent amount of time interacting with the computers which told of possible outcomes of current scientific discovers and technological advancements. The AI F1 racing car and staff displaying it were very knowledgeable and friendly to talk to, and it was really a great space that felt full of energy and cutting-edge information.
The Wallace Collection at at Hertford House was a visit that was similar to previous ones but had its own unique characteristics and features. In the magnificent house, each room was full of beautiful decorations and artwork. Being in the small house, there was a more personal feeling to the experience overall and it was a lot less crowded than other places. Overall, I felt like I could spend more time looking at the little details and objects and reading in the rooms, as the place was not as large as previously visited museums. The armory collections were intriguing and my group and I spend a bit of time going through the record books and trying to find specific items among the thousands of objects that were there. It was interesting to see such a large collection of swords, guns and armors.Being able to hold (and try on) some of the armor in the galleries under the courtyard was also a neat thing to include. I found one of the lower galleries of the brass sculpture work to be very interesting, and was highly impressed by the amount of effort and work that went into creating the detailed pieces.
Romeo & Juliet at the Globe Theatre
Going to the performance of Romeo & Juliet at Globe Theatre was the most fun event of the term, and an incredible experience overall. Arriving early before the show, several of us went for a walk along the River Thames and the surrounding area. We ended up coming across the site of the London Bridge attack and it was truly inspiring to see life carrying on as usual for the most part. As we waited to be let into the Yard, it began to rain heavily with just added to the experience of seeing a show with an open roof. The atmosphere of the show was very friendly and full of energy. When it began however, most people were taken aback by the absurd and unexplainable take on the classic tale. After the initial shock of the creative choices (such as rave characteristics mixed with clowns and modern urban culture) the audience began to enjoy it more and more and was roped into the performance. The rain inevitably stopped, about halfway through the show. I felt that the actors were phenomenal and expressed their roles with talent and commitment. Several times they would break character to laugh at humorous moments along with the audience and engaged often. The spectacles continued and while by the end of the night my feet did hurt a lot, I found myself enjoying every minute of the show. Overall the experience did not relate to my milestones but it was a great and certainly memorable show. When the rain cleared and the sunset, the city was lit up and a beautiful sight to see on our walk back to the flats from the waterside and Millennium Bridge.
The English Bus Tour
On June 8th, the day of the UK Election, we embarked on a Bus Tour to Stonehenge, Bath, and a Secret Place. This tour was easily one of the most fun aspects of the trip overall, and packed full of history, and beautiful sights. Our bus tour company was incredible, and the guides were knowledgeable, funny, and kind. I spoke for a bit with our guide about my camera and how he was a fan of Fujifilm, and he made an effort to get to know some of the people on the trip throughout the day.
After leaving London, we made it to Stonehenge, and on the drive in were informed of the small known history, and vast unknown history of the site. The rain and wind was annoying but did not slow us down at seeing the site, and I ended up spending most of our allotted time up by the rocks, swinging by the visitor center at the tail end. It was interesting to finally see the site up close and in person.
The city of Bath was a great stop for a tour, and as we were there, the rain broke and we ended up getting some sun during the exploring time we had. The limestone buildings in the valley gave the city a unique sense of history and made everywhere you went feel like a scene from a movie. I would love to go back and visit the city with more time and see all that it has to offer. Part of our group went and got food at a local pub that was kind and helped accommodate the large group of about 12 of us. After we broke off, I found a small fudge shop with incredible tasting fudge, and friendly staff. They walked us through how they made it, and asked us to get pictures of them as they made it, before giving us samples of all their different flavors! The whole city had a seemingly friendly energy, thanks to the busking musicians, and the tourist groups. We concluded our time in Bath with a great walking tour from our guide Andrew.
Following Bath, we made on last stop on our journey back to London. Our guide requested we keep this stop a secret however, as it was a spot that is not heavily trafficked. The spot was well worth it, and had a lot of history regarding its origins, use in film and contribution to photography!
Our visit to Windsor Castle was a fun one, and another great chance to get out of the city as a large group which continues to be a fun way to explore. I was surprised at how busy the castle was, with hundreds of people standing in line with us before the gates were even open. Once inside, I saw almost all of what the public could access of the castle and State Apartments. The State Apartments were incredibly decorated, and some of the most lavish architecture that I have seen on the entire trip. We visited on a great day because the weather outside was very nice and it provided for great pictures of the exterior features of the castle. After walking through the chapel, we witnessed the Changing of the Guard which was very different that what I expected. A large military band played several songs as the royal guards took over for the ROTC equivalent troops who had been guarding the castle over the weekend. A staff member informed us that the traditional guards were away at Buckingham Palace, practicing for a ceremony with the Queen that is coming up.
Not an official event on our schedule but still an incredible experience that I stumbled upon. With two other students, we discovered an event happening at St. Bartholomew the Great Church. The event was for the launch of the new Transformer's movie, directed by Michael Bay, which was premiering here in London on the 18th of June. After managing to get free tickets, we headed over to the church, which is the oldest in London and a shooting location for the film. We arrived early and were among the first in line, waiting for about an hour before we were allowed in to walk the red carpet. In typical Hollywood fashion, we walked down the carpet, with epic yet eerie music playing as we went into the church. Once in the church, we were guided to our seats. The entire building was light up with spotlights and colored mood-lighting, and we were seated facing a large screen that cycled through behind-the-scenes images of the production. Along the sides of the church were viewing spots with more printed behind-the-scenes photos. We were given gift bags, which had promotional material for the film and toys of characters in it (which I passed on). The event was a live streamed Q&A with cast members and director of the movie. The attendees were: Michael Bay, Mark Wahlberg, Isabela Moner, Josh Duhamel, Jerrod Carmichael and Laura Haddock. We were seated towards the front and as the Q&A went on there was a lot of crowd interaction and laughs as the guests discussed their experiences making the movies. Following the Q&A we got to briefly say hi to Michael Bay on our way out, and he was very humble and thanked us for coming out to the event. After that we headed over to Leicester Square, as attendees of the event were invited to an advanced screening with the Press. We made it to the Cineworld theater, where the premiere would be in just a few days, and were rushed past the ticket line after showing our wristbands. We watched the movie with almost 2,000 others in IMAX 3D on the biggest screen I have seen, and one of the largest IMAX screens in the world. While the movie was not that great of a story and kind of jumbled, it was quite a show and incredibly well made. We were told that the 3D is revolutionary, as most of the movie was shot with dual IMAX cameras which had never been done before in that way, and it was evident when seeing the finale cut that this produced an incredible image. When it was all over, this was truly a unique experience that we just happened to stumble upon!
To meet the two required concerts, I decided to attend Evensong at St. Paul's Cathedral. The first time I set out to attend I had gotten the wrong time, and so a few days later went back to watch the event. It was a fairly short concert but had a very large audience. The service was sung by the cathedral's choir in the choir stalls, but people also sat under the dome as the stalls had filled up. The experience overall was good, and the grand nature of St. Paul's and it's acoustics added greatly to the service.
BMW Presents: London Symphony Orchestra
The second concert I attended was an open air concert at Trafalgar Square. This show was huge, and even after arriving over a half hour early, the square was closed due to reaching max capacity. We ended up finding space along the front of the Portrait Gallery, and even then it was almost shoulder to shoulder standing room. I was amazed by the amount of people that had gathered to see that. We did not stay for the entire length of the concert as it became difficult to enjoy the music at the very end with the amount of movement occurring in the crowd around us, so we ended up walking around the square to be able to hear the finale. The music was incredible as I had imagined, but the experience of being with thousands of people on such a beautiful day in front of the National Gallery was even better than I thought it would after seeing the initial crowd.
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